PLANT GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION Process of Reproduction Many plants produce seeds in order to reproduce or make new plants. Seeds are produced in the flower of a plant. Flowers have male and female organs that are used to create seeds to grow new plants. The female organ of a flower is called the pistil. The pistil of a flower produces egg cells needed for plant reproduction. The male organ of a flower is called the stamen which produces pollen. Lesson Checkpoint: What is the female organ of a flower called? Plants need the help of animals and the wind in order to reproduce. Flower petals are often large and colorful and also have a sweet smell in order to attract bees, butterflies, and birds to the flower. • Nectar is the sweet liquid produced by flowers to attract insects and animals. • The pollen found on a flower needs to be transferred from one flower’s stamen to the pistil of another flower in order for plant reproduction to occur. • A flower’s nectar is located deep inside the flower so that when an insect or bird tries to get the nectar it also rubs up against the pollen on the flower as well. • When pollen rubs off on bees, butterflies, and birds, the pollen gets transferred to other flowers. This movement of pollen from one flower to another is called pollination. Lesson Checkpoint: What is one reason a plant has nectar? © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
Fertilization • Fertilization is the process of sperm cells from pollen combining with eggs cells in the ovary of a flower. • After fertilization occurs, a plant produces a seed or seeds which are often protected inside a fruit. Seeds • A seed coat surrounds the seed and protects it until it is ready to germinate. • A seed contains a leaf, stem, root, and stored food. • Seeds need the proper condition in order to grow, such as oxygen, water, and the proper temperature. • Seeds grow into new plants. The process of a seed beginning to grow is called germination. The life cycle of a flowering plant includes all the changes a plant goes through during its lifetime. Plants have different life cycles. Lesson Checkpoint: What is germination? About Seeds It is important for seeds to be scattered away from the parent plant so that they do not have to compete for the same resources such as space, nutrients in the soil, and water. Some seeds are prickly or have hooks that stick to the fur of some animals. These seeds eventually fall off the animal and grow in the soil where they fall. Other seeds are scattered to new soil by the wind. Some plants, such as mosses and ferns, do not produce seeds but are still able to reproduce. Mosses and ferns produce spores instead of seeds. Lesson Checkpoint: What do mosses and ferns produce instead of seeds? © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.