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Relationships among living things

Science, Grade 3

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Study Guide Relationships among living things Science, Grade 3

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RELATIONSHIPS AMONG LIVING THINGS Living things interact in many ways. These interactions can help, harm, or do nothing to a living thing. Living things can help each other in groups. An example of this is members of a wolf pack protecting each other. Each wolf is helped and helps others in the group. Another example of this is bees and flowers: the bees get nector for themselves from the flower, and then spread pollen that attaches to them for the flower. Both bee and flower benefit from this interaction. Some relationships between living things are harmful. For example, ticks can live on the skin of deer and dogs and the animal will never know it, but the tick harms the animal and spreads disease to it. An example of one living thing helping another living thing without being helped or harmed itself is barnacles on a whale. The whale provides a home for the barnacle, and it doesn’t affect the whale at all. Plants are Producers Plants do not have to depend on other living things for food because plants can make their own food. Plants need the Sun, air, and soil to make their own food. Plants are producers, which means that can make their own food. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
Consumers Living things that are NOT able to make their own food are called consumers. Consumers are made up of herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores. An herbivore is a living thing that eats only plants. A carnivore is a living thing that only eats other animals. A living thing that eats both plants and other animals is called an omnivore. Lesson Checkpoint: What is an herbivore? Getting the Energy to Survive Living things need energy in order to survive. Energy is passed between living things through a food chain. Food chains include producers and consumers interacting together. An example of a food chain is a plant eaten by a mouse which is then eaten by an owl. Consumers eat producers. When a consumer eats a producer energy is passed from the plant to the animal. Every living thing needs food energy in order to survive. Energy is often given off as heat into the environment. Lesson Checkpoint: What is a food chain? © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
A food web is the energy flow within a community and is made up of more than one food chain. Competing for Resources Living things compete with each other for food, space, water, and sunlight. Competition occurs when two or more living things are in need of the same resource, such as space to live or water. Animals may compete for food. Some competitors may survive and some may die. Most often the stronger of the two living things survives over the weaker one. If there are plenty of resources in an environment, there may not be as much competition as in environments where resources are limited or lacking. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
Changing Environments Plants and animals often change their own environment. An example of an animal changing its environment is a beaver building a dam. Natural events, like a forest fire, flood, or drought, occur sometimes and can change an environment too. Living things that break down waste or living things that have died in an environment are called decomposers. Worms are decomposers. Decay occurs when decomposers break down dead animals and waste. Decay adds nutrients to the soil which then helps new plants and trees to grow, which then provides food and shelter for other living things. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
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