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Plant reproduction

Science, Grade 6

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Study Guide Plant reproduction Science, Grade 6

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PLANT REPRODUCTION Reproduction in Gymnosperms The majority of gymnosperms have reproductive structures that are known as cones. The cone is covered with scales for protection and to help secure the cone to the ground. A cone is either a male or female reproductive structure of a gymnosperm. A tree will generally produce both male and female cones, but there are trees that will produce one or the other or even none at all. The male cones produce pollen, which are cells that will form sperm cells. Reproduction occurs when the pollen gets onto the female cone. Over time the sperm and egg cell will join together in a structure called the ovule. An ovule contains a female egg cell. After fertilization takes place the zygote will develop into the embryo portion of the seed. Let’s take a look at this process more thoroughly. Life Cycle of Gymnosperms The gymnosperm known as the pine tree has a very typical life cycle. Female: A pine tree will produce female cones along its branches. Male: A pine tree will produce male cones at the tip of a branch. The male cones will begin to produce small grains of pollen that will eventually mature into sperm cells. The sperm cell will be carried by the wind until it finds a female cone and its egg cell. At this point the male sperm cell will join with the female egg cell. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
Each of the many scales on a cone has two ovules at its base. Eventually, the ovules will mature into egg cells. After the ovule matures, the egg cell will produce a sticky substance that allows the sperm cells to be trapped once they come into contact. Fertilization: The pollen grains will begin to produce a tube that will eventually grow into the ovule. Lesson Checkpoint: How does the sperm cell enter the egg cell? Once this tube structure is successfully made, the sperm cell will move up through the tube and join the egg cell. This will allow the zygote to form. The ovule will then develop into a seed. The other seed structures that we learned about in Topic 11 will also develop at this point. The wind will then take the seed away where it will develop further into a seedling and eventually into a tree. Reproduction in Angiosperms An angiosperm is a plant that produces seeds within a fruit. Reproduction begins when the pollen from the anther is in contact with the stigma. Eventually the egg will be fertilized in the ovule that is in the ovary and turn from a zygote to an embryo inside the seed. As you know, there are certain species that help plants in the process of pollination. When an organism, such as a hummingbird, feeds on the nectar of a flower it picks up pollen from the anther. The hummingbird will soon feed on another flower of the same species and the pollen will get onto the stigma of the second flower. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
When the seed develops the ovary will begin to turn into a fruit. A fruit is an ovary that has ripened and holds the seeds of the plant. Animals will eat the fruit and disperse the seeds away from the parent. Lesson Checkpoint: What must travel from the anther to the stigma to initiate the angiosperm reproductive process? Structure of Flowers The structure in which seeds develop is called the ovary. The ovary is located within the flower of an angiosperm. The flower is the reproductive structure of an angiosperm. Flowers are different according to the species of angiosperm, but they generally have typical features. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
The petal is a very visible and colorful structure of the flower. The sepals are a leaf-like structure that protects the flower before it blooms. Flowers have both male and female reproductive parts. The male reproductive parts are the stamens, which consist of the anther and filament. The female reproductive parts are the pistils, which consist of the stigma, style, and ovary. Life Cycle of Angiosperms The life cycle of angiosperms among the different species is very similar. Pollination, fertilization, and the development of fruit are the typical steps of an angiosperm’s life cycle. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
Pollination: The anther contains the pollen, the male cells of an angiosperm. Pollen is carried by wind or by an organism that feeds on the nectar that the flower produces. The structure called the ovary contains two female cells called ovules. The ovules contain the egg cells and are located within the ovary. The stigma, the opening that leads to the ovary, produces a sticky substance that traps the pollen once it touches its surface. Fertilization: The pollen will begin to produce a pollen tube that will grow through the style until it reaches the ovule where the egg cell is contained. The pollen will then travel through the pollen tube and join together with the egg cell. The ovule will develop into an embryo and the seed structures will begin to form. Development of fruit: The ovary from the flower will begin developing into a fruit that carries the seeds. The fruit gives nutrients to the organisms that eat it and the angiosperm seeds will be dispersed. Once dispersed, the seed will grow into a new plant. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
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