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Introduction to animals

Science, Grade 4

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Study Guide Introduction to animals Science, Grade 4

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INTRODUCTION TO ANIMALS Animals on Earth Animals have particular body parts and structures to help them survive in their Earth environment. For instance, animals have certain body parts such as legs or wings that help them move, and mouths or trunks or beaks that help them drink water. Animals use their body parts to get what they need to survive from their environment, such as water, food, shelter, and oxygen. Lesson Checkpoint: What are two things animals need to survive? Classifications of Animals Scientists classify animals into two major groups: vertebrates and invertebrates. Vertebrates are animals that have a backbone. Vertebrates include fish, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals. Animals that do not have a backbone are called invertebrates. Over 97% of the animals on Earth are invertebrates. Lesson Checkpoint: What are invertebrates? © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
Symmetry Organisms in the animal kingdom with symmetry exhibit either radial or bilateral symmetry. Radial symmetry is when two or more lines can be drawn on the animal and each divides it into equal parts. Bilateral symmetry produces a mirror image if one line is drawn through it at one certain place only. Lesson Checkpoint: What is bilateral symmetry? Adaptations Animals use certain adaptations in order to survive in their environments. An animal adaptation is a trait that helps organisms to survive. Adaptations may include certain body parts, behaviors, sense of eyesight, being poisonous, or even having a terrible odor like a skunk. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
Body adaptations are called physical adaptations. An animal uses camouflage to protect itself from prey. Camouflage means having the appearance of one’s surroundings, which makes it difficult to see the camouflaged animal. Some animals use mimicry as a form of defense. Mimicry is when a weaker animal purposely looks like a stronger animal. An example of an animal using mimicry as a defense against predators is the viceroy butterfly. Monarch butterfly bodies contain a poison. The viceroy butterfly is not poisonous, but looks similar to the monarch, so its predators might not realize it is not the poisonous Monarch and thus avoid it. Lesson Checkpoint: Why might an animal use mimicry as a defense against predators? Behaviors Inherited behaviors are not learned behaviors. They are instincts that animals are born knowing to do. An inherited behavior is done already on instinct by the offspring. A spider knowing how to spin a web when it is born is an example of a inherited behavior. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
Learned behaviors, however, are traits that are not inherited or done by instinct. Learned behaviors are behaviors that are learned by animals watching other animals, such as their parents. An example of a learned behavior is a lion cub learning how to hunt from its parent. Lesson Checkpoint: What is the difference between a learned behavior and an inherited behavior? Seasonal Behaviors Migration is the movement of animals during a particular season or time period in response to climate changes or food availability. Migration usually involves an animal leaving and then coming back to the same area again. Hibernation is an animal’s state of inactivity when weather gets cold. Most animals will eat large amounts of food before hibernating in order to nourish their bodies during the winter. True hibernators remain totally inactive for a long period of time, they sleep deeply so they can’t be awakened, and their body temperature drops incredibly low. Lesson Checkpoint: What is migration? © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
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