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Energy

Science, Grade 3

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Study Guide Energy Science, Grade 3

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ENERGY Two Types of Energy Energy is the ability to do work. There are two types of energy. One type of energy is energy that is waiting to happen but has not happened yet. This is called potential energy. Another type of energy is called kinetic energy. This type of energy is energy that is happening now. Lesson Checkpoint: What is the difference between potential energy and kinetic energy? Energy has the ability to change from one type to another. Potential energy can change to kinetic energy. An example of potential energy changing into kinetic energy is someone who is sitting at the top of a slide just about to go down (potential energy) and then as the person slides down the slide the energy changes (kinetic energy). Forms of Energy There are many forms of energy. Chemical energy holds the particles of matter together and is stored energy that is waiting to happen. Batteries are an example of chemical energy. The chemicals in the batteries interact together and release chemical energy as electrical energy which sends electrical power to the toy or appliance that is running on battery power. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
The foods that we eat have chemical energy. Chemical energy in food gets changed into mechanical energy which is what helps us move our arms, legs, and our other body parts. Mechanical energy is energy that is happening or waiting to happen, so it includes both the potential and the kinetic energy of an object. Electrical energy is the movement of electrical charges, which creates electricity. This energy is moved from one place to another through wires. An electrical charge is a very small amount of energy. An electrical current is the movement of electrical energy from one place to another through wires. Lesson Checkpoint: What is an electrical charge? When energy changes form, heat is given off. For example, when you rub your hands together quickly back and forth, you are creating heat energy. You can feel the heat energy in your hands. Matter is made up of tiny particles. The particles that make up matter move because they energy. Heat causes the particles that make up matter to move faster. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
Thermal energy moves from warmer matter to cooler matter. If you place a cool object in a warm liquid, thermal energy will move from the warm liquid to the cool object. When the object and the liquid become the same temperature, the flow of heat energy will stop. Heat energy CAN make matter change states. Heat energy can cause water that is in a solid form as an ice cube change to a liquid state. A ice cube melts and becomes a liquid when it is heated. Heat energy can also make water boil causing the water to change states, from being a liquid to becoming a gas as it evaporates into the air as the water boils. Lesson Checkpoint: What is given off when energy changes form? © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
Light is also a form of energy. Light is energy that travels at very high speeds. Light can be reflected which means it bounces off an object. Light can also be absorbed, which means light is taken in by an object. Light travels in a straight line. When an object blocks light, a shadow is created. Some materials are transparent, which means they allow light to pass through clearly without any effects. Other materials are translucent, which means light passes through, but it’s not clear. Opaque materials do not allow any light to pass through. Lesson Checkpoint: Look around you…can you see three materials that are opaque? © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
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