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Elements and the periodic table

Science, Grade 6

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Study Guide Elements and the periodic table Science, Grade 6

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PERIODIC TABLE Pure Matter Elements are the purest form of matter and can not be broken down into any other substance by either a physical or chemical change. There are about 114 elements and they are organized on a modern Periodic Table of the Elements. As you look at the table you will notice that the elements are organized by their atomic numbers from top to bottom and left to right. On the table shown above, the first element is H for hydrogen and one atom of H has an atomic number of 1. The element with the highest atomic number is the last one on the bottom right of chart, Uuq. Lesson Checkpoint: What is used to organize the elements on the Periodic Table? © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
Chart Represents an Atom of Each Element Up toward the top left hand side of the table, the element C or carbon has been taken out and shown separately. To the right of the symbol, labels are given to the various pieces of information that are available for each element. Remember that in each case the information is for one atom of that element. Notice in the diagram that the atomic number is above the symbol and the atomic mass is below the symbol. Additional information includes the electron arrangement around the nucleus of that atom. Isotopes The Periodical Table tells us more too. Since atomic mass is the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom, by subtracting the atom’s atomic number from its atomic mass, you can figure out the number of neutrons. Atoms that have the same atomic number but a different atomic mass are called isotopes of each other. Carbon with a mass of 12 and Carbon with a mass of 14 are isotopes of each other. The difference is that Carbon 14 has two extra neutrons. If you count the number of electrons listed on the right hand side of the small box, it will give you the total number of electrons in that atom. Whenever an atom is not bonded to another, the number of protons in the nucleus always equals the number of electrons outside the nucleus. Lesson Checkpoint: What can the atomic mass of an atom tell us about particles of the atom? © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
Positions in the Periodic Table The vertical rows of the table are called periods. The elements in a period are not chemically similar. Normally the elements toward the left are metals, the ones along the dark line on the right side are metalloids, and the ones on the right are non metals. Metalloids, such as Silicon (Si), have both metallic and non metallic properties. Periods towards the bottom of the table contain radioactive elements. These atoms disintegrate and, when they do, large amounts of atomic or nuclear energy are released. For period 4 shown above, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe,Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Ga are considered metals. Ge and As are the metalloids and Se and Br are the non metals. Kr is a noble gas. This will be explained in the next section. The horizontal columns in the Table are called groups. All the elements in the same group have similar chemical properties. If you look below at the elements in group 1, you will notice that each atom has only one electron in its outer orbit. This is what gives these elements similar properties. Since Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs and Fr have only one electron in their outer orbits, these atoms act as very active metals. If you look over to group 17 you will notice that each atom has seven electrons in its outer orbits. This makes, F, Cl, Br, I and At very active non metals. Group 18 contains noble gases. These atoms all have eight electrons in their outer electron orbit and are almost totally unable to bond to other atoms. These elements are sometimes referred to as inert elements. Lesson Checkpoint: What are the names of the vertical columns and horizontal rows of the Periodic Table? © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
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