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Earth's Waters

Science, Grade 4

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Study Guide Earth's Waters Science, Grade 4

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EARTH’S WATERS Water, water, EVERYWHERE Did you know that three quarters (3/4) of Earth is covered by water? That is a lot of water!! Freshwater Most of the water on Earth is saltwater; very little of it is freshwater. What is freshwater? Freshwater is water containing only a very little amount of salt. The Earth has only 1% of usable freshwater, which is found in groundwater, lakes, rivers, and streams. Groundwater is freshwater beneath the Earth's surface, in the ground. Two percent (2%) of Earth’s freshwater is frozen in polar ice caps and glaciers. However, it is not usable since it is frozen. Ice caps are a thick permanent covering of ice and snow on land. Freshwater is essential to humans because we use it for drinking and watering crops. Lesson Checkpoint: Why is freshwater essential to us? © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
So Much Saltwater…. Oceans are made of salt water. Ninety-seven percent (97%) of the Earth’s water is saltwater. There are five named oceans of the world, which include the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern, and Arctic Oceans. Salt water is not usable water because we can’t drink it or use it for crops. More about the Ocean…. Ocean currents keep our oceans in constant motion and move large amounts of water far distances. Ocean tides are periodic rising and falling of the surface of the ocean caused by the gravitational pulls of the moon as well as the rotation of the Earth. Lesson Checkpoint: What causes the ocean tides? Did you know that the Earth recycles…WATER? The water cycle is the constant movement of the Earth’s water from the Earth’s surface to the atmosphere and the back again. Throughout the water cycle, water can be solid, liquid, and a gas. The sun powers the water cycle, because heat is what keeps the cycle going. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
Stages of the Water Cycle: Evaporation: the changing of a liquid into a gas Evaporation occurs when the sun warms the water in a body of water and some of the water changes into water vapor which rises off the water and goes into the air. Transpiration: the process by which plants give off water vapor into the air through their leaves. Condensation: the changing of a gas, when cooled, back into a liquid Precipitation: how the water gets back to the earth, through hail, mist, rain, sleet, or snow. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
Water run off is the water that falls back to earth as precipitation, and runs off of hills and mountains into lakes, rivers, and oceans. Some water ends up on land and soaks into the ground, which is called groundwater. Lesson Checkpoint: What is the water cycle? Unfortunately, sometimes water can be polluted… Water pollution causes water to be contaminated with harmful substances. Industrial waste, water run off from farms filled with pesticides and fertilizer, untreated sewage drains, and air pollution are all causes of water pollution. Lesson Checkpoint: What is one cause of water pollution? © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
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