CIRCULATION AND IMMUNITY The Circulatory System The circulatory system, otherwise known as the cardiovascular system, consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. This important system is a large network of highways delivering blood throughout the body. The circulatory system brings many different materials to all the cells of the body and picks up waste from the same cells. The blood contains different types of cells that fight diseases and infections. The most important structure of the circulatory system is the heart. The Heart The heart is a hollow muscle made of cardiac muscle that pumps blood to all of the cells in the body. The heart lies underneath the breastbone and is protected by the rib cage. Every time the heart beats, blood is being pushed through all of the different blood vessels of the body. The structure of the heart keeps the blood flowing in one direction, in a path from body to heart to lungs to heart and back to body. The heart has two separate sides, the right and left, which are separated by the septum. The septum prevents oxygen-rich blood from mixing with oxygen-poor blood. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
There is an upper and lower chamber on each side of the heart. The upper chambers are known as the atria, and the lower chambers are known as the ventricles. Each atrium receives blood into the heart and each ventricle pumps blood out of the heart. The structure that divides the atria from the ventricles is called a valve. The valve prevents blood from flowing backwards in the one-way direction of the circulatory system. Lesson Checkpoint: What structure prevents blood from flowing backwards? Steps of a Heart Beat There are two separate actions every time the heart beats. First, the heart relaxes and the atria fill with blood. Then the atria contract, causing blood to move through the valve and into the ventricles. The ventricles will then contract causing the valves to close and pumping blood out to the body. In the right atrium, there are a group of cells that send out signals that cause the heart to contract called the pacemaker. The pacemaker receives information about the body’s need for oxygen. Immediately after leaving the heart, the blood travels through the blood vessels. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
Blood Vessels There are three types of blood vessels in the human body: arteries, capillaries, and veins. • The arteries are blood vessels that move blood away from the heart and out to the body. • The capillaries are small blood vessels that connect the arteries to the veins and where substances are exchanged between the blood and body tissues. • The veins are blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart muscle. Blood Flow There are two loops in the circulatory system. One has oxygen-rich blood and one has oxygen-depleted blood. The blood flows from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart in the first loop. The blood flows from the heart, out to the body, and back to the heart in the second loop. Blood takes less than a minute to travel through both loops. • During the first loop, the blood leaves the right atrium and is pumped out to the lungs. This is where blood picks up oxygen and drops off carbon dioxide and other wastes. The blood then returns to the heart. • During the second loop, the blood leaves the left atrium and is pumped out of the left ventricle to all of the cells in the body. The blood drops off oxygen to the cells and picks up carbon dioxide and other wastes. Lesson Checkpoint: What is the difference between the two loops of the circulatory system? © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
Arteries, Capillaries and Veins Blood leaves the heart through arteries. The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs through arteries and the left ventricle pumps blood out to the body through an artery called the aorta. The aorta is the largest artery in the human body. All of the cells in the body receive materials from blood that travels through the arteries. The heart itself receives materials from blood through structures called the coronary arteries. Structure of an Artery The walls of arteries are thick and consist of three different layers. The inside layer is made up of epithelial cells that are very smooth, which helps to increase the blood flow. The middle layer is smooth muscle. The outside layer is made up of connective tissue. The artery structure is very flexible and strong allowing the arteries to hold high pressure created by the pumping of the heart. When the blood exits the arteries, it enters the capillaries. Materials are exchanged in the capillaries between the blood and the cells that surround the capillaries. The walls of capillaries are one cell thick allowing materials to be passed through easily. The blood brings oxygen and glucose to the cells and picks up cellular waste. The materials pass through the capillary walls in a process called diffusion, which we learned about in Topic 4. The capillaries are very small, allowing the blood cells to pass through one at a time. The blood then exits the capillaries and enters the veins. The veins carry the blood that is loaded with waste back to the heart. Veins are made of three layers of tissue with the center tissue being made of muscle. The pressure created by the heart is low by the time that the blood reaches the veins. Blood must flow in one direction, so valves help the blood from flowing backwards. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
Components of Blood If you were to take blood out of your body and put it into a test tube, the blood would separate into its four components. The top layer would be the liquid part of the blood called plasma. The second layer would be white blood cells and platelets and the last layer would be the red blood cells. Plasma makes up over 50% of the blood and is made mostly of water. Plasma includes materials like digested foods, vitamins, minerals, and wastes from the cells. The yellowish color of plasma is caused by the three types of proteins within the plasma. The plasma proteins monitor the amount of water in the plasma, help to fight disease, and work with platelets to form blood clots. Red blood cells carry oxygen to all the cells of the body. Without these cells, the body would have no way of getting oxygen to the cells. Red blood cells are produced by the marrow within bones. Red blood cells look like a round tube that you would ride at a water park, except the center is pinched together. The structure of red blood cells allows them to be flexible so that they can easily travel through the narrow capillaries. Red blood cells are made of a protein the binds together with oxygen molecules called hemoglobin. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
White blood cells are also produced in the bone marrow and are the disease fighters of the body. If a white blood cell recognizes a disease, virus, or bacterial cell it will sound the alarm so the body is aware of the invader. There are white blood cells that produce chemicals that kill the invaders and others that actually attack the invader. There are fewer white blood cells than there are red blood cells in the blood and the white blood cells are much bigger. If you have ever fallen and scraped or cut a part of your body, you probably noticed that after a while you developed a scab over the cut or scrape. The material in the blood that caused the blood to clot is called the platelets. Platelets are fragments of cells that are critical to forming blood clots. When you get a cut on your body, platelets stick to the area of the wound and begin to collect. Platelets will then release certain chemicals that will produce a protein called fibrin. Fibrin is a protein that weaves a net that covers the cut and tangles blood cells into the net until a blood clot or scab develops. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
Blood types If a person were to ever lose a lot of blood from a wound, that person may be given a blood transfusion. A blood transfusion is a medical procedure that transfers blood from one person to another. In the early 1900’s, this procedure often failed, and doctors did not understand why at the time. It wasn’t until a physician tried mixing the blood of several different patients in a glass jar that the problem was revealed. The blood would clump together when some patients’ blood was mixed and mix together smoothly when other patients’ blood was mixed. The clumping after a blood transfusion caused certain patients to die because the clumped blood was clogging the blood vessels. This led to the discovery of the four types of blood. The blood types are A, AB, B and O. The blood type of a person is determined by markers that are on the red blood cells. If you have an A marker, then you have blood type A. If you have both A and B markers, then you have blood type AB. If you have a B marker, then you have blood type B. If you have no markers at all, then you have blood type O. The markers that determine your blood type also determine which types of blood you can safely receive in a blood transfusion. Refer to the chart to see which blood types mix well and which do not. The lymphatic system Blood will occasionally leak out through the walls of the blood vessels. The liquid is brought back to the bloodstream by a network of vein-like vessels called the lymphatic system. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
Once the fluid is within the lymphatic system it is called lymph. Lymph is put back into the veins through lymphatic vessels. As the liquid passes through the lymphatic system, it enters structures call lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are structures of the lymphatic system that filter the lymph, trapping materials that can cause disease. Infectious and Noninfectious Diseases Many infectious diseases are caused by organisms that are too small to see without a microscope. The organisms that are the cause of disease are called pathogens. An infectious disease is a disease that can be spread from one organism to the other. Each pathogen causes a specific disease. The major groups of pathogens that cause disease in humans are protists, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. The only way to stop an infectious disease is by killing the organism that is causing the disease. Pathogens are spread in many different ways, including from another person, a contaminated object, and the environment around you. Infectious disease can be spread from one person to another directly through physical contact such as hugging and shaking hands, and indirectly by inhaling materials in the air from another person’s sneeze. Objects can become contaminated if an infected person touches the object; then that disease can be spread if another person were to touch that object. Many pathogens live in our environment. They live in soil, food, and water. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
Noninfectious Disease Noninfectious diseases are diseases that are not spread from one person to another. These include diabetes, allergies, and cancer. Diabetes: The pancreas is an organ that produces the chemical insulin. Insulin allows the body to take in glucose from the blood and use the glucose for energy. Diabetes is a noninfectious disease that occurs when the body is unable to use insulin or the pancreas does not produce insulin. When a person has diabetes, they have high levels of glucose in their blood, and the glucose is excreted in the urine rather than used by the body. This drastically reduces the glucose that is available for the cells to produce energy. A person with diabetes must monitor the amount of glucose that is in their blood on a strict schedule to keep his or her body systems in balance. Allergy: An allergy is a disorder caused when the immune system is sensitive to a certain substance. Allergies are caused by plants and certain animals. Asthma is a condition that is caused by allergies. Cancer: Cancer is a noninfectious disease that occurs when cells multiply uncontrollably and begin to damage healthy tissue. The multiplying cells will start to grow in size, becoming a tumor. A tumor is an abnormal mass of tissue. Body Defenses Against Disease Our body has created barriers to keep the pathogens out. The skin, mouth, stomach, and breathing passages are barriers that trap and kill most of the pathogens that we come into contact with on a daily basis. These body parts are known as the first line of defense against disease. • The skin produces oils and sweat that will kill most of the pathogens that try to enter. Washing your skin will get rid of pathogens. • The mouth and stomach both produce chemicals that will destroy pathogens. • Mucus that is produced in the breathing passages will trap pathogens and cilia slowly remove the trapped pathogens. However, even with these defenses against invading pathogens, sometimes disease invades the body. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
The second line of defense is a response to damaged tissue called the inflammatory response. The inflammatory response causes the body to release chemicals and white blood cells into the tissue near the damaged tissue so that the chemicals and white blood cells can fight the invading pathogens. The response is the same no matter what the invader is. The white blood cells involved with the inflammatory response are called phagocytes. Function of a phagocyte A phagocyte is a white blood cell that surrounds the invading pathogen and breaks it down. The area that is affected by an inflammatory response becomes red and swollen because the blood vessels widen to allow the fluids and blood to get to the area damaged. The area affected by the inflammatory response is normally warmer than the surrounding tissue because of the repairing that is occurring. The third line of defense is called the immune response. An immune response is from our body’s disease fighting system, also known as our immune system. The immune system can tell the difference between the various pathogens, so the pathogens are specifically targeted. The white blood cells that are involved with the immune response are called lymphocytes. Two types of lymphocytes There are two types of lymphocytes called T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes or T cells and B cells. • T cells identify exactly which pathogens have invaded the body. Each type of T cell recognizes one pathogen. What the T cells actually recognize is something called an antigen that is on the pathogen. An antigen is a molecule that responds to a particular immune response. • B cells produce chemicals, called antibodies, which help to destroy the different types of pathogens. Antigens and antibodies attack pathogens together. The antigen will attach to the pathogen and the antibody attaches to the antigen. This will mark the invading pathogen to be destroyed. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.