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Flip Charts

Science Grade 8

Science, Grade 8

 
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Copyright © NewPath Learning. All rights reserved. www.newpathlearning.com Charts Charts Grade Grade 888 34-8001 \|xiBAHBDy01260tz] Sturdy, Free-Standing Design, Perfect for Learning Centers! Reverse Side Features Questions, Labeling Exercises, Vocabulary Review & more!
Phone: 800-507-0966 Fax: 800-507-0967 www.newpathlearning.com NewPath Learning® products are developed by teachers using research-based principles and are classroom tested. The company’s product line consists of an array of proprietary curriculum review games, workbooks, posters and other print materials. All products are supplemented with web-based activities, assessments and content to provide an engaging means of educating students on key, curriculum-based topics correlated to applicable state and national education standards. Copyright © 2009 NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Curriculum Mastery® and NewPath Learning® are registered trademarks of NewPath Learning LLC. Science Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts provide comprehensive coverage of key standards-based curriculum in an illustrated format that is visually appealing, engaging and easy to use. Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts can be used with the entire classroom, with small groups or by students working independently. Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart Set features 10 double-sided laminated charts covering grade-level specific curriculum content on one side plus write-on/wipe-off charts on reverse side for student use or for small-group instruction. Built-in sturdy free-standing easel for easy display Spiral bound for ease of use Activity Guide with black-line masters of the charts for students to fill-in, key vocabulary terms, corresponding quiz questions for each chart, along with answers Ideal for Learning centers In class instruction for interactive presentations and demonstrations Hands-on student use Stand alone reference for review of key science concepts Teaching resource to supplement any program HOW TO USE Classroom Use Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart can be used to graphically introduce or review a topic of interest. Side 1 of each Flip Chart provides graphical representation of key concepts in a concise, grade appropriate reading level for instructing students. The reverse Side 2 of each Flip Chart allows teachers or students to fill in the call-outs of key structures and summarize key concepts. Note: Be sure to use an appropriate dry-erase marker and to test it on a small section of the chart prior to using it. The Activity Guide included provides a black-line master of each Flip Chart which students can use to fill in before, during, or after instruction. On the reverse side of each black-line master are questions corresponding to each Flip Chart topic which can be used as further review or as a means of assessment. While the activities in the guide can be used in conjunction with the Flip Charts, they can also be used individually for review or as a form of assessment or in conjunction with any other related assignment. Learning Centers Each Flip Chart provides students with a quick illustrated view of grade-appropriate curriculum concepts. Students may use these Flip Charts in small group settings along with the corresponding activity pages contained in the guide to learn or review concepts already covered in class. Students may also use these charts as reference while playing the NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Independent student use Students can use the hands-on Flip Charts to practice and learn independently by first studying Side 1 of the chart and then using Side 2 of the chart or the corresponding graphical activities contained in the guide to fill in the answers and assess their understanding. Reference/Teaching resource Curriculum Mastery® Charts are a great visual supplement to any curriculum or they can be used in conjunction with NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Chart # 1: Chart # 2: Chart # 3: Chart # 4: Chart # 5: Chart # 6: Chart # 7: Chart # 8: Chart # 9: Chart #10: Photosynthesis & Respiration Modern Genetics Osmosis & Diffusion Microlife Rocks Minerals Plate Tectonics Elements & The Periodic Table Chemical Reactions Properties of Atoms
glucose smaller molecules cytoplasm energy mitochondrion carbon dioxide Stage 2 smaller molecules water oxygen energy Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is a process by which green plants and certain bacteria use the energy from the Sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into the simple sugar glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen. Plants and animals use glucose as a source of energy for all life processes. The process of photosynthesis begins in the leaves where light energy is absorbed by the green pigment chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is found within a plant cell organelle called the chloroplast. The captured light energy is then used to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. stoma leaf vein stoma spongy cells epidermis guard cells nucleus chloroplast Using the captured light energy, glucose and oxygen are produced inside the chloroplasts through a complex series of chemical reactions. Carbon dioxide enters the leaf through tiny pores called stomata. (Oxygen produced leaves the leaf through the stomata also.) Chloroplasts capture light energy. Water enters the leaf. Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration is a process by which cells break down glucose to release stored energy. Stage 1 of respiration begins in the cell’s cytoplasm through the break-down of glucose into smaller molecules releasing a small amount of energy. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy glucose oxygen water carbon dioxide 6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2 oxygen glucose water light energy chlorophyll carbon dioxide 1 Sugar leaves the leaf. 5 2 3 4 water glucose carbon dioxide Stage 1 During Stage 2, the smaller molecules combine with oxygen in the mitochondria to produce a large amount of energy along with carbon dioxide and water. W ATER GL UC OSE Photosynthesis & Respiration © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4701 www.newpathlearning.com
glucose smaller molecules cytoplasm energy mitochondrion carbon dioxide Stage 2 smaller molecules water oxygen energy Photosynthesis _________________________ is a process by which green plants and certain bacteria use the energy from the Sun to convert ____________________ and ____________________ into ____________________ and ____________________. Plants and animals use _________________________ as a source of _________________________ for all life processes. The process of photosynthesis begins in the leaves where light energy is absorbed by the green pigment ____________________ . Chlorophyll is found within a plant cell organelle called the ____________________ . The captured light energy is then used to convert carbon dioxide and water into ____________________ and ____________________ . stoma Using the captured light energy, glucose and oxygen are produced inside the chloroplasts through a complex series of chemical reactions. Carbon dioxide enters the leaf through tiny pores called stomata. (Oxygen produced leaves the leaf through the stomata also.) Chloroplasts capture light energy. Water enters the leaf. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy glucose oxygen water carbon dioxide 6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2 oxygen glucose water light energy chlorophyll carbon dioxide 1 Sugar leaves the leaf. 5 2 3 4 water glucose carbon dioxide Stage 1 During ____________________ , the smaller molecules combine with ____________________ in the ____________________ to produce a large amount of energy along with ___________________ and ________________. W ATER GL UC OSE Key Vocabulary Terms carbon dioxide guard cell cellular respiration mitochondrion chlorophyll organelle chloroplast oxygen energy photosynthesis glucose stoma Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration is a process by which cells break down glucose to release stored energy. The process of respiration begins in the cell’s ______________________ through the break-down of ______________________ into smaller molecules releasing a small amount of energy. Photosynthesis & Respiration © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4701 www.newpathlearning.com \|xiBAHBDy01767nzW
Human Karyotype © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4703 www.newpathlearning.com Modern Genetics chromosome pair T T C G G gene A A A C C C C G G G G T T T A B c D e F G h i J a b C d E f g H I j T A A C G G 1 2 3 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 19 20 21 22 XX (female) XY (male) 15 16 17 18 4 5 or DNA Fingerprinting Each person has a unique set of DNA. As a result of this uniqueness, it can be used to produce a genetic fingerprint known as DNA fingerprinting. It is a method used by scientists to solve crimes, determine familial relationships or to track hereditary diseases. 1. DNA is extracted from the cell. 2. The extracted DNA is cut into smaller pieces with special enzymes. 3. The DNA pieces are placed on a gel that uses electric current to push them through the gel and separate them according to size. The larger DNA pieces remain closer to the top, while the smaller ones move towards the bottom. 4. The separated DNA pieces on the gel are then stained to reveal their unique banded pattern known as a DNA fingerprint. Chromosomes, Genes and DNA Chromosomes are made up of DNA. DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. The hereditary information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T). The order, or sequence, of these bases, determines the information available for building and maintaining an organism, similar to the way in which letters of the alphabet appear in a certain order to form words and sentences. DNA bases pair up with each other, A with T and C with G, to form units called base pairs. Each chromosome contains thousands of genes. A gene is a section of a DNA strand that is made up of a series of bases which contains the information for cells to make one specific protein. A karyotype is a picture of the complete set of chromosomes in a cell. Scientists examine a karyotype to identify and evaluate the size, shape and number of chromosomes in a human cell. Extra, missing or abnormal positions of chromosome pieces can cause problems with a person's growth, development and body functions. A normal human male karyotype is represented as 46,XY and a normal female karyotype is represented as 46,XX. Individuals with chromosomal disorders include Down Syndrome (47, XY, +21) and Turner’s Syndrome (45, X) among others. DNA strand genes proteins chromosomes centromere nucleolus nucleus cell gel electrophoresis system DNA added
\|xiBAHBDy01762sz\ Human Karyotype © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4703 www.newpathlearning.com Modern Genetics T T C G G A A A C C C C G G G G T T T J T A A C G G 1 2 3 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 19 20 21 22 XX (female) XY (male) 15 16 17 18 4 5 or DNA Fingerprinting Each person has a unique set of DNA. As a result of this uniqueness, it can be used to produce a genetic fingerprint known as _____________________________. It is a method used by scientists to solve crimes, determine familial relationships or to track hereditary diseases. Chromosomes, Genes and DNA ___________________ are made up of DNA. DNA, or __________________________, is the __________________________ in humans and almost all other organisms. The hereditary information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: ________________, ________________, ________________ and ________________. The order, or sequence, of these bases, determines the information available for building and maintaining an organism, similar to the way in which letters of the alphabet appear in a certain order to form words and sentences. DNA bases pair up with each other, ___ with T and C with ___, to form units called _______________________. Each chromosome contains thousands of genes. A ________________ is a section of a DNA strand that is made up of a series of bases which contains the information for cells to make one specific ________________. A _________________ is a picture of the complete set of ___________________ in a cell. Scientists examine a karyotype to identify and evaluate the size, shape and number of chromosomes in a human cell. Extra, missing or abnormal positions of chromosome pieces can cause problems with a person's growth, development and body functions. A normal human male karyotype is represented as _______________ and a normal female karyotype is represented __________________. Individuals with chromosomal disorders include ________________________________ (47, XY, +21) and ________________________________ (45, X) among others. DNA strand nucleolus nucleus cell DNA added gene A B c D e F G h i a b C d E f g H I Key Vocabulary Terms adenine Down syndrome base pairs gel electrophoresis centromere genes chemical bases guanine chromosomes hereditary diseases cytosine karyotype DNA thymine DNA fingerprinting Turner’s syndrome 1. 2. 3. 4. ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ _____________________ _____________________
Diffusion Osmosis Passive Transport outside of cell energy inside of cell cell membrane transport protein Cell Membrane Each cell has a cell membrane which provides structure and regulates the passage of materials between the cell and its environment. The cell membrane consists of two layers composed of proteins and lipids. The cell membrane is known as a semipermeable membrane since it allows only certain substances to move into and out of the cell. Small molecules move across a cell membrane through a method called diffusion. Diffusion is a process by which a substance moves from a place of high concentration to a place of low concentration. This process continues until the concentration of the substance is the same on both sides of the membrane. Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules across a semipermeable membrane. The movement of water into and out of cells depends on osmosis. Active Transport Some substances move across the cell membrane from a low concentration to an area of high concentration with the use of energy. The transport of materials through a cell membrane using energy is called active transport. Passive Transport The transport of materials across the cell membrane from a high concentration to a place of low concentration without the use of energy is called passive transport. high concentration of oxygen outside the cell even concentration of oxygen inside and outside the cell high concentration high concentration low concentration low concentration Active Transport normal red blood cell low water concentration outside cell high water concentration outside cell This cell has shrunk because water has moved out of it. This cell has swollen because water has moved into it. even concentration of water inside and outside of cell Osmosis & Diffusion © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4705 www.newpathlearning.com Inside of Cell Before Diffusion After Diffusion transport protein carbohydrate Outside of Cell lipid bilayer
Diffusion Osmosis Key Vocabulary Terms active transport lipid bilayer cell membrane low concentration diffusion osmosis energy passive transport high concentration semipermeable membrane lipids transport protein outside of cell energy inside of cell cell membrane transport protein Cell Membrane Each cell has a ________________________________ which provides structure and regulates the passage of materials between the cell and its environment. The cell membrane consists of two layers composed of ________________ and ________________. The cell membrane is known as a _________________________ membrane since it allows only certain substances to move into and out of the cell. Small molecules move across a cell membrane through a method called __________________. __________________ is a process by which a substance moves from a place of ____________________ concentration to a place of ______________ concentration. This process continues until the concentration of the substance is the same on both sides of the membrane. ________________ is the diffusion of water molecules across a ______________________________. The movement of water into and out of cells depends on ________________. Active Transport Describe: __________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Passive Transport Describe: __________________________________________ __________________________________________________ high concentration of oxygen outside the cell even concentration of oxygen inside and outside the cell high concentration high concentration low concentration low concentration normal red blood cell low water concentration outside cell high water concentration outside cell This cell has shrunk because water has moved out of it. This cell has swollen because water has moved into it. even concentration of water inside and outside of cell Osmosis & Di ffusion © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4705 www.newpathlearning.com Inside of Cell transport protein carbohydrate Outside of Cell lipid bilayer \|xiBAHBDy01763pzY
Bacteria Bacteria are the most abundant organisms on Earth. They thrive in diverse conditions and places, including our bodies. Bacteria are single celled organisms. They are considered prokaryotes, since their DNA is in the cytoplasm and not within a nucleus. Although some bacteria can cause disease, most bacteria types are beneficial in food and medicine production, recycling of matter and keeping our bodies healthy. Shapes of Bacteria Bacteria have one of three basic shapes: spiral, rod-like or spherical. Paramecium Paramecia are animal-like protists that live in fresh water and feed on bacteria and smaller protists. Euglena Euglenoids are unicellular algae that live in fresh water and can make their own food in the presence of sunlight. food vacuole nucleus nucleus large nucleus small nucleus cilia cytoplasm cytoplasm eyespot slime mold flagellum chloroplast pseudopod contractile vacuole contractile vacuole contractile vacuole anal pore food vacuole oral groove cell membrane cell membrane DNA ribosomes cell wall cytoplasm spiral spherical rodlike pilli Fungus-like protists, like fungi, are heterotrophs and use spores to reproduce. Protists The protist kingdom is the most diverse. Some protists are unicellular while others are multicellular. The wide variety of characteristics of the numerous protist species makes it difficult to categorize them, but scientists developed a method that places each species into one of three separate categories: animal-like, plant-like (algae) and fungus-like. Some photos courtesy of CDC and USDA. Amoeba Amoebas are animal-like and feed on bacteria and smaller protists. Fungi are eukaryotes (have a cell nucleus) with cell walls, are heterotrophs that obtain food by absorbing nutrients by decomposing organic matter and use spores to reproduce. Fungi cycle nutrients and provide us with antibiotics, while others are used for food such as mushrooms. And select species of fungi have the ability to cause disease in both plants and animals. Classification of fungi Club fungi Fungi in this group include mushrooms, rusts and puffballs. Sac fungi Sac fungi are the largest group of fungi and include yeasts, morels and truffles. Zygote fungi Common fruit and bread molds are examples of Zygote fungi. gills hyphae underground hyphae cap stalk Fungi Microlife Bacteria, Fungi & Protists © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4704 www.newpathlearning.com flagellum
Bacteria eyespot slime mold chloroplast anal pore oral groove Protists Microlife Bacteria, Fungi & Protists © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4704 www.newpathlearning.com Classification of fungi Fungi are ________________ (have a cell nucleus) with cell walls, are ________________ that obtain food by absorbing nutrients by decomposing organic matter and use spores to reproduce. Fungi recycle _______________ and provide us with ________________, while others are used for food such as mushrooms. Select species of fungi have the ability to ________________ in both plants and animals. Club fungi _________________ _________________ _________________ Sac fungi _________________ _________________ _________________ Zygote fungi _________________ _________________ _________________ __________________ are the most abundant organisms on Earth. They thrive in diverse conditions and places, including our bodies. ____________________ are single celled organisms. They are considered _________________, since their DNA is in the cytoplasm and not within a ___________________. Although some bacteria can cause disease, most bacteria types are beneficial in ____________________ and ____________________, _______________________ and _______________________. Shapes of Bacteria Bacteria have one of three basic shapes: _____________________, ___________________ or ___________________. ________________ are animal-like and feed on bacteria and smaller protists. ________________ are animal-like protists that live in fresh water and feed on bacteria and smaller protists. ________________ are unicellular algae that live in fresh water and can make their own food in the presence of sunlight. _________________, like fungi are heterotrophs and use spores to reproduce. The __________________ kingdom is the most diverse. Some protists are __________________ while others __________________. The wide variety of characteristics of the numerous protist species makes it difficult to categorize them, but scientists developed a method that places each species into one of three separate categories: ___________________, ___________________ and __________________. Key Vocabulary Terms Amoeba Euglenoids plasma membrane animal-like eukaryotes pseudopod antibiotic flagellum protist bacteria fungus-like rodlike cell wall heterotrophs Sac fungi cilia nucleus spherical Club fungi Paramecium vacuole cytoplasm plant-like Zygote fungi Fungi \|xiBAHBDy01757ozX
sandstone (sedimentary) gneiss (metamorphic, foliated) quartzite (metamorphic, nonfoliated) granite (igneous) shale (sedimentary) slate (metamorphic, foliated) Foliated metamorphic rock is arranged in layers. Heat & Pr essure erosion compaction cementation Sedimentary Rocks sandstone conglomerate limestone shale coquina Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks are rocks that have been placed in layers by weathering or erosion. Over millions of years, these layers are compressed and cemented together. Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks form when liquid rock cools and hardens. Liquid rock that is under the crust is called magma. When it pours out onto the Earth’s surface, it is then called lava. Igneous rocks are classified by their origin, texture and composition. Intrusive igneous rocks originate from cooling magma, while extrusive rocks are made from cooling lava. Texture is related to how long it takes a rock to cool. Slow- cooling rocks form visible crystals, while fast-cooling rocks have small crystals that are not always visible. Dark igneous rocks, described as mafic, have a different composition than light igneous rocks, described as felsic. Granite is a light-colored intrusive rock with visible crystals. Pumice is a lightweight rock made from frothing lava and gases. It is the only rock that can float on water. Basalt forms much of the ocean’s crust. Obsidian is a dark, glassy igneous rock. There are three categories of sedimentary rocks. Clastic sedimentary rocks are composed of pieces of other pre-existing rock. These pre-existing rocks are weathered and transported by water and wind and are re-deposited elsewhere. The sediments accumulate and lithify (become solid rock). Chemical sedimentary rocks are sedimentary rocks that formed through chemical precipitation. Under ideal conditions, dissolved lime in ocean water precipitates out of the water and accumulates on the ocean floor which eventually lithifies into limestone. Biochemical or (organic) sedimentary rocks form when the shell remains of organisms collect on the ocean floor and lithify, becoming fossils and a layer of limestone. Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have changed as the result of intense heat and pressure deep in the Earth’s crust. Metamorphic rocks are classified as foliated and nonfoliated. Foliated metamorphic rocks such as gneiss, schist and slate have their mineral grains arranged in parallel layers. Nonfoliated metamorphic rocks such as marble and quartzite have their mineral grains arranged randomly. Rocks © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4102 www.newpathlearning.com Some photos courtesy of USGS. pumice obsidian granite basalt lava magma
Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary Rocks What are sedimentary rocks? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Igneous Rocks How do igneous rocks form? ________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ How are igneous rocks classified? ____________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Dark igneous rocks are referred to as __________________. Light colored igneous rocks are referred to as __________________________. There are three categories of sedimentary rocks. Clastic sedimentary rocks _______________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Chemical sedimentary rocks _____________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Biochemical or (organic) sedimentary rocks _______________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Metamorphic Rocks What are metamorphic rocks? _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ Metamorphic rocks are classified as ____________________________ and __________________________ __________________________. Foliated metamorphic rocks _________________________________ _________________________________ Nonfoliated metamorphic rocks _________________________________ _________________________________ Heat & Pr essure biochemical sedimentary rock chemical sedimentary rock clastic sedimentary rock erosion felsic foliated metamorphic rock igneous rock lava mafic magma metamorphic rock nonfoliated metamorphic rock sedimentary rock weathering Key Vocabulary Terms Rocks © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4102 www.newpathlearning.com Some photos courtesy of USGS. \|xiBAHBDy01793mzV
Identifying Minerals Uses of Minerals Mohs Hardness Scale What Is a Mineral? A mineral, by definition, must meet four criteria. It must be a naturally occurring, solid substance that has an internal crystal structure and is formed by inorganic processes. How Do Minerals Form? Minerals form in a wide variety of geologic environments. Some, like garnet, asbestos, talc and kyanite, form as a result of intense heat and pressure created during metamorphism. Some minerals form from hot-water solutions created when ground water is heated by magma. Dissolved metals and other elements in the hot liquid solution crystallize forming new minerals. Other minerals form from liquid rock (magma) as the magma cools. Yet another group of minerals forms as ocean water evaporates. talc gypsum calcite fluorite apatite feldspar quartz topaz corundum diamond 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Many of the commodities we consume and use every day are mined from rocks and minerals. For example, the element fluorine is used to make fluoride for toothpaste. Copper pipes and wires are made from the copper minerals malachite and cuprite. The steel used to make appliances and cars is a mixture of iron and other metals. Glass windows and drinking glasses are made from quartz sand. Gold is used in computers, cell phones and other electronic equipment. galena (with silver) Crystal System Every mineral forms a specific crystal shape. There are over 3,500 mineral species. All of these species belong to one of seven different crystal systems. The crystal systems are determined by the internal arrangement of the molecules in the mineral. Color Color is sometimes used to help identify a certain mineral. Streak Streak is the color of a mineral when it is crushed to a powder. This is found by rubbing the specimen on a piece of unglazed porcelain. Minerals with hardness greater than 7 do not leave a streak. Luster Luster is a description of how light reflects off of a mineral. Some of the luster descriptions are metallic, glassy (also called vitreous), earthy, adamantine (diamond-like), greasy and dull. Specific Gravity Specific gravity is a measure of the density of a mineral. The density is determined by comparing the mass of the mineral with the mass of an equal amount of water. Hardness A mineral’s hardness is determined by comparing the mineral to the known hardness of the minerals in the Mohs Hardness Scale. Cleavage & Fr acture Cleavage is a description of how a mineral breaks on flat planes. Fracture is a description of how a mineral breaks along curved or irregular surfaces. Special Properties There are also interesting physical properties that are unique to some minerals. For example, hematite always has a deep, blood red streak. Magnetite and lodestone are magnetic. diamond mica Minerals are identified based on their physical properties. gold crystals sulfur amethyst halite tourmaline copper talc