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Science Grade 7

Science, Grade 7

 
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Copyright © NewPath Learning. All rights reserved. www.newpathlearning.com Charts Charts Grade Grade 34-7001 \|xiBAHBDy01259nzW Sturdy, Free-Standing Design, Perfect for Learning Centers! Reverse Side Features Questions, Labeling Exercises, Vocabulary Review & more!
Phone: 800-507-0966 Fax: 800-507-0967 www.newpathlearning.com NewPath Learning® products are developed by teachers using research-based principles and are classroom tested. The company’s product line consists of an array of proprietary curriculum review games, workbooks, posters and other print materials. All products are supplemented with web-based activities, assessments and content to provide an engaging means of educating students on key, curriculum-based topics correlated to applicable state and national education standards. Copyright © 2009 NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Curriculum Mastery® and NewPath Learning® are registered trademarks of NewPath Learning LLC. Science Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts provide comprehensive coverage of key standards-based curriculum in an illustrated format that is visually appealing, engaging and easy to use. Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts can be used with the entire classroom, with small groups or by students working independently. Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart Set features 10 double-sided laminated charts covering grade-level specific curriculum content on one side plus write-on/wipe-off charts on reverse side for student use or for small-group instruction. Built-in sturdy free-standing easel for easy display Spiral bound for ease of use Activity Guide with black-line masters of the charts for students to fill-in, key vocabulary terms, corresponding quiz questions for each chart, along with answers Ideal for Learning centers In class instruction for interactive presentations and demonstrations Hands-on student use Stand alone reference for review of key science concepts Teaching resource to supplement any program HOW TO USE Classroom Use Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart can be used to graphically introduce or review a topic of interest. Side 1 of each Flip Chart provides graphical representation of key concepts in a concise, grade appropriate reading level for instructing students. The reverse Side 2 of each Flip Chart allows teachers or students to fill in the call-outs of key structures and summarize key concepts. Note: Be sure to use an appropriate dry-erase marker and to test it on a small section of the chart prior to using it. The Activity Guide included provides a black-line master of each Flip Chart which students can use to fill in before, during, or after instruction. On the reverse side of each black-line master are questions corresponding to each Flip Chart topic which can be used as further review or as a means of assessment. While the activities in the guide can be used in conjunction with the Flip Charts, they can also be used individually for review or as a form of assessment or in conjunction with any other related assignment. Learning Centers Each Flip Chart provides students with a quick illustrated view of grade-appropriate curriculum concepts. Students may use these Flip Charts in small group settings along with the corresponding activity pages contained in the guide to learn or review concepts already covered in class. Students may also use these charts as reference while playing the NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Independent student use Students can use the hands-on Flip Charts to practice and learn independently by first studying Side 1 of the chart and then using Side 2 of the chart or the corresponding graphical activities contained in the guide to fill in the answers and assess their understanding. Reference/Teaching resource Curriculum Mastery® Charts are a great visual supplement to any curriculum or they can be used in conjunction with NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Chart # 1: Chart # 2: Chart # 3: Chart # 4: Chart # 5: Chart # 6: Chart # 7: Chart # 8: Chart # 9: Chart #10: Cells: The Basic Unit of Life Mitosis & Meiosis Introduction to Plants Introduction to Animals Our Solar System Earthquakes Understanding Weather Work & Machines Forces & Motion Acids, Bases & Salts
Cells - The Basic Units of Life © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4602 www.newpathlearning.com Cell membrane is the gate keeper of the cell that controls the passage of materials into and out of the cell. Plant Cell What is a Cell? The cell is the basic building block of all living organisms. It is the smallest unit of an organism that can carry out the functions of life. Robert Hooke was one of the first people to observe cells using his own compound microscope in 1663. Some cells are single, self-sustaining organisms such as amoebas and bacteria; other cells are part of multicellular organisms and cannot survive alone. bacteria amoeba paramecium skin cells nerve cell (neuron) blood cells The structures within the cell are known as organelles which carry out specific functions. Endoplasmic reticulum is a transport system of tubes and channels connecting organelles in the cell. Nucleus is the control center of the cell. It houses the nucleolus and the genetic material (chromatin). Nuclear envelope is a membrane which surrounds and protects the nucleus. Nucleolus is the site where ribosomes are made. Chromatin contains the genetic material that is used for directing the cell functions. Nuclear pores allow materials to pass in and out of the nucleus. Ribosomes are the factories that produce proteins needed by the cell. Cytoplasm is a gel-like substance containing the organelles. Lysosome contains chemicals (enzymes) that break down and recycle harmful materials. Mitochondrion is a rod-like structure that converts the energy in food molecules to a form that the cell can use. Golgi bodies are organelles that direct different materials made in the cell where they need to go. Cell wall is a rigid outer layer of plant cells that provides support. Vacuoles are sacs that contain water and store nutrients and waste products. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll which captures energy from the Sun and uses it to produce food for the plant in a process known as photosynthesis. Specialized Cells The human body consists of trillions of cells, including some 200 different cell types that vary greatly in size, shape and function. Sperm cells are the tiniest human cells, a few micrometers wide (1/12,000 of an inch); whereas the longest cells, the neurons that run from the tip of the big toe to the spinal cord, can be as long as several feet in an average adult! Animal Cell protein carbohydrate Inside Cell Outside Cell lipid bilayer
Cells - The Basic Units of Life © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4602 www.newpathlearning.com Plant Cell What is a Cell? What is a Cell? _______________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ What is an organelle? _________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Specialized Cells The human body consists of trillions of cells, including some 200 different cell types that vary greatly in size, shape and function. Animal Cell Key Vocabulary Terms cell membrane mitochondrion cell wall nuclear chloroplasts envelope chromatin nuclear pores cytoplasm nucleolus endoplasmic nucleus reticulum photosynthesis Golgi bodies ribosomes lysosome vacuoles protein carbohydrate Inside Cell Outside Cell lipid bilayer \|xiBAHBDy01742kzU
Meiosis I Before Meiosis Meiosis II Mitosis Cell Growth DNA Replication Cytokinesis Preparation for Mitosis Inte rp ha se The Cell Cycle The Cell Cycle Cells reproduce by a process called cell division. The cell cycle is the sequence of stages of growth and division that a cell undergoes. The three stages of the cell cycle include interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis. Meiosis During meiosis a parent cell divides into four sex cells, each with half the number of chromosomes. Sex cells of males are called sperm cells and sex cells of females are called egg cells. Prophase The chromatin condenses and spindle fibers form at each side of the cell. The nuclear membrane breaks apart. Anaphase The spindle fiber splits the centromere and the chromatids move to opposite sides of the cell. Telophase The chromosomes loosen on each side and the nuclear membrane begins to form around the chromatin (strands of DNA). Cytokinesis During this stage the cell membrane pinches in at the middle of the cell dividing it into two separate daughter cells. Each daughter cell gets half of the cell organelles and an identical set of chromosomes. 1 Before meiosis begins, chromosomes in the parent cell are copied. 2 Chromosome pairs line up in the middle of the cell. 3 The chromosome pairs split and pull apart to opposite ends of the cell. 4 Each of the two new cells formed has half the number of chromosomes. 5 Chromosome pairs line up in the middle of the cell. 6 The centromeres split and the single chromosomes move apart to opposite ends of the cell. 7 Four sex cells are produced, each with only one chromosome from each original pair. Interphase is the first stage of the cell cycle and the period before cell division. During this phase the cell matures, copies its DNA and prepares to divide. Meiosis Punnett Square female parent male parent A Punnett Square shows all the possible allele (gene) combinations in the offspring of two organisms. RR Rr Rr rr Rr Rr R r R r centriole chromatin daughter cells Metaphase The chromosomes line up along the center of the cell and the spindle fibers attach to each chromosome at the centromere. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4702 www.newpathlearning.com Mitosis & Meiosis chromatids chromatin centromere
\|xiBAHBDy01759sz\ Meiosis I Before Meiosis Meiosis II Mitosis Cell Growth DNA Replication Cytokinesis Preparation for Mitosis Int er ph as e The Cell Cycle The Cell Cycle Cells reproduce by a process called ____________________ . The __________________ is the sequence of stages of growth and division that a cell undergoes. The three stages of the cell cycle include ____________________ , ____________________ and ____________________ . Meiosis During __________________ a parent cell divides into four sex cells, each with half the number of chromosomes. Sex cells of males are called ____________________ and those of females are called ____________________ . Prophase The _____________ condenses and spindle fibers form at each side of the cell. The nuclear membrane breaks apart. Anaphase The spindle fiber splits the ________________ and the chromatids move to opposite sides of the cell. Telophase The chromosomes loosen on each side and the nuclear membrane begins to form around the chromatin (strands of DNA). Cytokinesis During this stage the cell membrane pinches in at the middle of the cell dividing it into two separate ____________________ . Each daughter cell gets half of the cell organelles and an identical set of ____________________ . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ____________________ is the first stage of the cell cycle and the period before cell division. During this phase the cell matures, copies its DNA and prepares to divide. Metaphase The _________________ line up along the center of the cell and the spindle fibers attach to each chromosome at the centromere. Key Vocabulary Terms anaphase interphase cell cycle meiosis cell division metaphase centromere mitosis chromatids prophase chromosomes Punnett square cytokinesis sex cells daughter cells sperm cells DNA spindle fibers egg cells telophase © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4702 www.newpathlearning.com Mitosis & Meiosis
Seedless Nonvascular Plants Plants are placed in two major groups nonvascular plants and vascular plants. Nonvascular plants lack roots and a system of tubes for transporting water and nutrients. They absorb water and nutrients directly from their environment. Vascular plants have a well-developed system of tubes for transporting materials throughout the plant’s body. Liverworts, mosses and hornworts grow in moist areas where they can absorb water and nutrients directly from their surroundings. Seed Plants Seed plants are vascular and use pollen and seeds to reproduce. There are two main groups of seed plants gymnosperms and angiosperms. Angiosperms An angiosperm is a owering plant that produces seeds enclosed in fruit. There are two major groups of angiosperms– monocots and dicots. Types of Angiosperms Ferns, club mosses and horsetails have vascular tissue and reproduce by releasing spores. Plants without Seeds Seedless Vascular Plants moss on a tree liverworts hornworts club mosses ferns horsetail Seed Structure Types of Gymnosperms A gymnosperm plant produces naked seeds which are not covered by a protective fruit. Cycads - palm tree Ginkgoes - Ginkgo biloba leaves corn Gymnosperms lily rice bean plant apple tree dandelions Seed Leaf Stem Flower Plant part Monocots Dicots One cotyledon Parallel veins Bundles of scattered vascular tissue Flower in three parts Two cotyledons Branching veins Bundles of vascular tissue arranged in a ring Flower in four or five parts Comparing Monocots & Dicots corn bean pine seed coat embryo embryo seed coat seed coat stored food embryo stored food Gnetophyte - Welwitschia stored food Photos courtesy of USDA, NOAA & USFWS. Conifers - pine tree Introduction to Plants © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4604 www.newpathlearning.com
\|xiBAHBDy01750pzY Seedless Nonvascular Plants ________________, ________________ and ________________ grow in moist areas where they can absorb water and nutrients directly from their surroundings. Seed Plants The two main groups of seed plants are ___________________ and ___________________. Angiosperms An ___________________ is a owering plant that produces seeds enclosed in fruit. There are two major groups of angiosperms ___________________ and ___________________. Types of Angiosperms ________________, ________________ and ________________ have vascular tissue and reproduce by releasing spores. Plants without Seeds Seedless Vascular Plants A ___________________ plant produces naked seeds which are not covered by a protective fruit. Cycads - palm tree Ginkgoes - Ginkgo biloba leaves Gymnosperms Monocots s t o c i D t r a p t n a l P Seed Leaf Stem Flower _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ Comparing Monocots & Dicots Gnetophyte - Welwitschia Conifers - pine tree Introduction to Plants © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4604 www.newpathlearning.com Key Vocabulary Terms angiosperms monocot dicot nonvascular embryo roots ower seed coat fruit spores gymnosperms stem leaf vascular Describe the following: Nonvascular plants __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Vascular plants __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Seed Structure stored food stored food stored food Types of Gymnosperms
Invertebrates Vertebrates Cnidarians Echinoderms Fishes Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals Segmented worms Spiders Centipedes Insects Crustaceans Mollusks Roundworms Flatworms Sponges Arthropods Skeletal System organ tissue cell Characteristics of Animals Animals cannot make their own food. Animals digest their food. Most animals are capable of movement. Animals are multicellular (have many cells). Animal cells are eukaryotic. Each cell has a nucleus and organelles surrounded by membranes. Most animals undergo sexual reproduction. Structure of Animals The bodies of most animals (all except sponges) are made up of cells organized into tissues. Each tissue is specialized to perform a specific function. In most animals, tissues are organized into even more specialized organs. Organs are organized into organ systems. Functions of Animals Obtain food and oxygen Maintain stable conditions within their bodies Move in order to meet basic survival needs Reproduce Animal Symmetry If you have ever looked into a mirror, you will notice that you could draw a line down the center of your face and the arrangement of facial structures will be balanced. This is called symmetry and it is an important characteristic of most of animals. There are two types of symmetry: bilateral and radial symmetry. Bilateral Symmetry Radial Symmetry No Symmetry Biologists so far have discovered over 1.5 million different types of animals. Animals are grouped according to how they are related to other animals. This branching tree shows how major animal groups are possibly related. Major Animal Groups Introduction to Animals © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4605 www.newpathlearning.com
Invertebrates Vertebrates Arthropods Characteristics of Animals Characteristics of animals include: __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ Structure of Animals The bodies of most animals (all except sponges) are made up of cells organized into ________________. Each ________________is specialized to perform a specific function. In most animals, tissues are organized into even more specialized ________________. Organs are organized into ________________. Functions of Animals Functions of animals include: _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ Animal Symmetry If you have ever looked into a mirror, you will notice that you could draw a line down the center of your face and the arrangement of facial structures will be balanced. This is called ________________ and it is an important characteristic of most of animals. There are two types of symmetry: ________________ and _______________. How are animals grouped? ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Major Animal Groups Key Vocabulary Terms amphibians mollusks bilateral symmetry multicellular centipedes organs cnidarians radial symmetry crustaceans reproduction echinoderms reptiles eukaryotic roundworms fishes segmented worms Introduction to Animals © Copyright N ewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4605 www.newpathlearning.com \|xiBAHBDy01753qzZ
Formation of Our Solar System Solar systems begin in the dust and gas clouds found in between the stars. The dust is composed of elements like iron and carbon. The gas clouds are composed of hydrogen and helium. These dusty clouds are called nebulae. Through a process, called “accretion,” dust particles formed larger bodies that eventually became planetesimals. Close to the Sun, the rocky planetesimals grew by accretion to become the rocky planets. In the outer reaches of the solar system, the gases like hydrogen and helium accreted to rocky cores forming planets called gas giants. The Sun The Sun is a burning ball of gas (mostly hydrogen and helium) that is held together by gravity. The Sun’s energy is produced by nuclear fusion reactions. The Inner Planets The inner planets are also known as the terrestrial planets or as rocky planets. The terrestrial planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Mercury is the smallest of the terrestrial planets. Mercury has no atmosphere and no moon. Venus is referred to as “Earth’s twin or “sister planet” because it has similar composition, gravity, and size to Earth. It has the densest atmosphere of the terrestrial planets consisting of carbon dioxide and clouds of sulfuric acid. Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the fifth largest. Approximately 70% of the Earth's surface is covered with water. The Earth's atmosphere is approximately 77% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, with traces of argon, carbon dioxide and water. Mars has had a very active volcanic history. There is growing evidence that there were large amounts of water on Mars at one time. Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system. It likely has a rocky core, but Jupiter is mostly made up of hydrogen and helium. Saturn is the second largest planet in the solar system. Scientists believe that it actually creates more heat itself than it receives from the Sun. It is composed mainly of hydrogen and helium. Uranus is visible to the naked eye, but due to its distance from the Earth it was not recognized as a planet until 1781. It was the first planet to be discovered with the use of a telescope. The gas giant furthest from the Sun is Neptune. It has a rock and ice core surrounded by a large layer of ice and a layer of hydrogen and helium gas. The highest wind speeds in the solar system are on Neptune. The Outer Planets These four outer planets - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune - are also referred to as the gas giants or Jovian planets. Pluto Until 2006, Pluto was considered the 9th planet from the Sun. Recently astronomers have concluded that Pluto is not a planet by the strict definition of a planet. It is therefore no longer listed as a planet but as a dwarf planet in a region of the solar system called the Kuiper Belt. Images courtesy of NASA. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4110 www.newpathlearning.com Our Solar System
Formation of Our Solar System How do solar systems form? _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Describe: Rocky planets: ________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Gas giants: ___________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ The Sun How is the Sun’s energy produced? ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ The Inner Planets The inner planets are also known as the ____________________ ____________________or as ____________________ ____________________ . The terrestrial planets are ____________________, ____________________, ____________________ and ____________________ . Describe: Mercury: ___________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Venus: _____________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Earth: ______________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Mars: _______________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ The Outer Planets These four outer planets - ____________________ , ____________________ , ____________________ , and ____________________ - are also referred to as the ____________________ ____________________ or ____________________ ____________________ . Describe: Jupiter: _________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ Saturn: ________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ Uranus: ___________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ Neptune: __________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Pluto: ______________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Key Vocabulary Terms accretion Earth gas giants inner planets Jovian planets Jupiter Mars Mercury nebulae Neptune outer planets planetesimals rocky planets Saturn terrestrial planets Uranus Venus © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4110 www.newpathlearning.com Our Solar System \|xiBAHBDy01791sz\
focus seismic waves epicenter epicenter hanging wall direction of wave direction of wave direction of wave footwall footwall hanging wall earthquake damage What Are Earthquakes? The theory of plate tectonics describes the movement of the plates of the lithosphere relative to each other. This movement creates forces that push and pull on the crust. Crustal rock can absorb and store energy, but only so much. There is a point at which the stress is more than the rock can hold, and the rock breaks. When the rock breaks, the stored energy is released and this energy travels through the Earth. This sudden release of energy created when rocks break is called an earthquake. Types of Seismic Waves Seismic waves are the vibrations from earthquakes that travel through the Earth and are recorded on instruments called seismographs. There are three different types of seismic waves released by an earthquake. Kinds of Faults A fault is created when tension in Earth’s crust pulls the rock layers apart. Normal Fault A normal fault occurs when a hanging block moves down relative to the footwall. Reverse Fault When the hanging wall moves up relative to the footwall, a reverse fault is formed. Reverse faults are the result of compression (forces that push rocks together). Strike-slip Fault A strike-slip fault forms when rocks move past each other horizontally. The San Andreas Fault is an example of a strike-slip fault. P-waves or primary waves are the first energy waves released. They are the fastest of the seismic waves and can travel through solids, liquids and gases. Because they are the fastest seismic waves, they are the first waves to be measured by a seismograph. P-waves are pulse waves that move rock back and forth, first compressing then stretching the rock. S-waves or secondary waves are the second type of waves created by an earthquake. S-waves are slower than P-waves and therefore arrive at a seismograph after the P-waves. S-waves are also called shear waves because they travel in an S pattern through the rock, creating shear stresses. S-waves can travel through solids, but they cannot travel through liquids. The slowest and most destructive seismic waves created by an earthquake are called surface waves. Surface waves travel along the surface of the Earth’s crust in a circular motion and shake the surface of the Earth up and down. Measuring Earthquakes An earthquake’s seismic waves are measured and recorded by an instrument called a seismograph. The actual recording of the seismic waves is a seismogram. Using seismograms, seismologists can determine an earthquake’s start time and its epicenter. The magnitude of most earthquakes is measured on the Richter scale, invented by Charles F. Richter in 1934. Earthquakes are classified in categories ranging from minor (3 on the Richter scale) to major (7 or more on the Richter scale). Photographs courtesy of USGS. Time P wave S-P interval S wave surface wave Earthquakes © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4106 www.newpathlearning.com
\|xiBAHBDy01786ozX direction of wave direction of wave direction of wave P wave S-P interval S wave surface wave What Are Earthquakes? Describe: Earthquake: ______________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Epicenter: _________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Focus: ____________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Types of Seismic Waves _____________________________ are the vibrations from earthquakes that travel through the Earth and recorded on instruments called _____________________________ . There are three different types of _____________________________ released by a(n) _____________________________ . Kinds of Faults A ________________________ is created when tension in Earth’s crust pulls the rock layers apart. Normal Fault Describe: ______________________________ ______________________________________ Reverse Fault Describe: ______________________________ ______________________________________ Strike-slip Fault Describe: ______________________________ ______________________________________ P-waves or primary waves Describe: _____________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ S-waves or secondary waves Describe: _____________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ Surface waves Describe: ______________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ Measuring Earthquakes An earthquake’s seismic waves are measured and recorded by an instrument called a ________________________. The actual recording of the seismic waves is a ________________________. Using seismograms, seismologists can determine an earthquake’s start time and its ________________________. What is the Richter scale? __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ Photographs courtesy of USGS. Key Vocabulary Terms crust earthquake epicenter fault focus normal fault plate tectonics P-waves reverse fault Richter scale seismic waves seismogram seismograph seismologist strike-slip fault surface waves S-waves Time Earthquakes © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4106 www.newpathlearning.com
H L L L evaporation condensation ocean river discharge precipitation precipitation water storage in snow evapotranspiration ru no ff in filt ra tio n water table ground water discharge Stratus (spread out or layered) Cirrus (curly, wispy) Cumulus (heaped or piled up) Photos courtesy of NASA and NOAA. What Is Weather? The condition of the atmosphere at a specific time in a specific place is known as weather. The weather includes and is affected by water, wind, temperature and air pressure. Meteorologists are scientists who study and predict weather and weather patterns. Humidity and Precipitation As water evaporates from oceans, lakes and rivers, it is held in the air. The amount of water vapor in the air is called humidity. Relative humidity is a percentage that compares the amount of water vapor in the air with the maximum amount of water vapor the air can hold at a specific temperature. Precipitation is water that has condensed in the atmosphere and falls to Earth. Sleet, snow, rain and hail are different forms of precipitation. The type that falls at a given time depends on the temperature. Amount of Water Vapor Air Can Hold at Various Temperatures Temperature (ºC) W ater v a por ( g/m 3 ) 0 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 10 20 30 40 50 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10 0 HUMIDITY The Sun’s Energy & the Water Cycle The continuous movement of water from the Earth’s surface to the atmosphere and back is called the water cycle. Energy