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Science Grade 6

Science, Grade 6

 
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Copyright © NewPath Learning. All rights reserved. www.newpathlearning.com Charts Charts Grade Grade 666 \|xiBAHBDy01211lz[ 34-6001 Sturdy, Free-Standing Design, Perfect for Learning Centers! Reverse Side Features Questions, Labeling Exercises, Vocabulary Review & more!
Phone: 800-507-0966 Fax: 800-507-0967 www.newpathlearning.com NewPath Learning® products are developed by teachers using research-based principles and are classroom tested. The company’s product line consists of an array of proprietary curriculum review games, workbooks, posters and other print materials. All products are supplemented with web-based activities, assessments and content to provide an engaging means of educating students on key, curriculum-based topics correlated to applicable state and national education standards. Copyright © 2009 NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Curriculum Mastery® and NewPath Learning® are registered trademarks of NewPath Learning LLC. Science Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts provide comprehensive coverage of key standards-based curriculum in an illustrated format that is visually appealing, engaging and easy to use. Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts can be used with the entire classroom, with small groups or by students working independently. Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart Set features 10 double-sided laminated charts covering grade-level specific curriculum content on one side plus write-on/wipe-off charts on reverse side for student use or for small-group instruction. Built-in sturdy free-standing easel for easy display Spiral bound for ease of use Activity Guide with black-line masters of the charts for students to fill-in, key vocabulary terms, corresponding quiz questions for each chart, along with answers Ideal for Learning centers In class instruction for interactive presentations and demonstrations Hands-on student use Stand alone reference for review of key science concepts Teaching resource to supplement any program HOW TO USE Classroom Use Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart can be used to graphically introduce or review a topic of interest. Side 1 of each Flip Chart provides graphical representation of key concepts in a concise, grade appropriate reading level for instructing students. The reverse Side 2 of each Flip Chart allows teachers or students to fill in the call-outs of key structures and summarize key concepts. Note: Be sure to use an appropriate dry-erase marker and to test it on a small section of the chart prior to using it. The Activity Guide included provides a black-line master of each Flip Chart which students can use to fill in before, during, or after instruction. On the reverse side of each black-line master are questions corresponding to each Flip Chart topic which can be used as further review or as a means of assessment. While the activities in the guide can be used in conjunction with the Flip Charts, they can also be used individually for review or as a form of assessment or in conjunction with any other related assignment. Learning Centers Each Flip Chart provides students with a quick illustrated view of grade-appropriate curriculum concepts. Students may use these Flip Charts in small group settings along with the corresponding activity pages contained in the guide to learn or review concepts already covered in class. Students may also use these charts as reference while playing the NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Independent student use Students can use the hands-on Flip Charts to practice and learn independently by first studying Side 1 of the chart and then using Side 2 of the chart or the corresponding graphical activities contained in the guide to fill in the answers and assess their understanding. Reference/Teaching resource Curriculum Mastery® Charts are a great visual supplement to any curriculum or they can be used in conjunction with NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Chart # 1: Chart # 2: Chart # 3: Chart # 4: Chart # 5: Chart # 6: Chart # 7: Chart # 8: Chart # 9: Chart #10: Diversity of Life Cells: The Basic Units of Life Genetics: Study of Heredity Introduction to Plants Introduction to Animals Ecosystems, Food Chains & Food Volcanoes Sun, Earth, Moon Systems Solids, Liquids & Gases Electromagnetism
Group Number of Living Species Vertebrates 42,000 Mammals 4,000 Birds 9,000 Reptiles 6,000 Amphibians 4,000 Fish 19,000 Invertebrates 980,000 Plants 248,000 insect fish snake bird rabbit tiger polar bear black bear grizzly bear fish snake bird rabbit tiger polar bear black bear grizzly bear rabbit tiger polar bear black bear grizzly bear tiger polar bear black bear grizzly bear polar bear black bear grizzly bear black bear grizzly bear grizzly bear Variety of Life Millions of different living things are found on Earth; and there’s a large number of living things that have not yet been discovered. The different structures and characteristics among organisms make it possible for them to survive and reproduce in every place on Earth. Living organisms are found on every type of land, deep in the oceans and high in Earth’s atmosphere. Known Species on Earth Levels of Classification Biologists classify every organism into seven different levels - kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. Each level contains organisms with similar characteristics. The Kingdom is the largest group and the most diverse. Organisms in this group share the least number of characteristics with each other. Notice that as you move to the lower levels of classification, the number of organisms decreases. The species is the smallest group. Organisms in this group share more characteristics with each other. Only organisms within a species are able to mate and produce fertile offspring. This chart traces the classification of a grizzly bear through each of the seven levels of classification. KINGDOM Animalia PHYLUM Chordata CLASS Mammalia ORDER Carnivora FAMILY Ursidae GENUS Ursus SPECIES horribilis Diversity of Life © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4601 www.newpathlearning.com
Group Number of Living Species Vertebrates Mammals Birds Reptiles Amphibians Fish Invertebrates Plants insect fish snake bird rabbit tiger polar bear black bear grizzly bear fish snake bird rabbit tiger polar bear black bear grizzly bear rabbit tiger polar bear black bear grizzly bear tiger polar bear black bear grizzly bear polar bear black bear grizzly bear black bear grizzly bear grizzly bear Variety of Life Describe the variety of life on Earth. __________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Known Species on Earth Levels of Classification This chart traces the classification of a grizzly bear through each of the seven levels of classification. Biologists classify every organism into seven different levels: 1. _____________________ 2. _____________________ 3. _____________________ 4. _____________________ 5. _____________________ 6. _____________________ 7. _____________________ Key Vocabulary Terms animalia genus carnivora kingdom chordata mammalia class order classification phylum family species Diversity of Life © Copyright N ewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4601 www.newpathlearning.com \|xiBAHBDy01745lz[
Cells - The Basic Units of Life © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4602 www.newpathlearning.com Cell membrane is the gate keeper of the cell that controls the passage of materials into and out of the cell. Plant Cell What is a Cell? The cell is the basic building block of all living organisms. It is the smallest unit of an organism that can carry out the functions of life. Robert Hooke was one of the first people to observe cells using his own compound microscope in 1663. Some cells are single, self-sustaining organisms such as amoebas and bacteria; other cells are part of multicellular organisms and cannot survive alone. bacteria amoeba paramecium skin cells nerve cell (neuron) blood cells The structures within the cell are known as organelles which carry out specific functions. Endoplasmic reticulum is a transport system of tubes and channels connecting organelles in the cell. Nucleus is the control center of the cell. It houses the nucleolus and the genetic material (chromatin). Nuclear envelope is a membrane which surrounds and protects the nucleus. Nucleolus is the site where ribosomes are made. Chromatin contains the genetic material that is used for directing the cell functions. Nuclear pores allow materials to pass in and out of the nucleus. Ribosomes are the factories that produce proteins needed by the cell. Cytoplasm is a gel-like substance containing the organelles. Lysosome contains chemicals (enzymes) that break down and recycle harmful materials. Mitochondrion is a rod-like structure that converts the energy in food molecules to a form that the cell can use. Golgi bodies are organelles that direct different materials made in the cell where they need to go. Cell wall is a rigid outer layer of plant cells that provides support. Vacuoles are sacs that contain water and store nutrients and waste products. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll which captures energy from the Sun and uses it to produce food for the plant in a process known as photosynthesis. Specialized Cells The human body consists of trillions of cells, including some 200 different cell types that vary greatly in size, shape and function. Sperm cells are the tiniest human cells, a few micrometers wide (1/12,000 of an inch); whereas the longest cells, the neurons that run from the tip of the big toe to the spinal cord, can be as long as several feet in an average adult! Animal Cell protein carbohydrate Inside Cell Outside Cell lipid bilayer
Cells - The Basic Units of Life © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4602 www.newpathlearning.com Plant Cell What is a Cell? What is a Cell? _______________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ What is an organelle? _________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Specialized Cells The human body consists of trillions of cells, including some 200 different cell types that vary greatly in size, shape and function. Animal Cell Key Vocabulary Terms cell membrane mitochondrion cell wall nuclear chloroplasts envelope chromatin nuclear pores cytoplasm nucleolus endoplasmic nucleus reticulum photosynthesis Golgi bodies ribosomes lysosome vacuoles protein carbohydrate Inside Cell Outside Cell lipid bilayer \|xiBAHBDy01742kzU
P Generation F1 Generation F2 Generation 1 2 B B B B b b b b B B BB Bb b Bb bb b tall tall tall tall tall seed shape seed color pod shape pod color stem height short (recessive) green smooth yellow green round re ce ss iv e al le le do m in an t al le le wrinkled pinched yellow tall (dominant) chromosome bb BB Bb white rabbit black rabbit black rabbit cell nucleus DNA strand gene nucleolus How many chromosomes? Human 46 Gorilla 48 Crayfish 200 Cat 38 Dog 78 Pea plant 14 Black fur BB Black fur Bb White fur bb Phenotype Genotype Mendel’s Experiments In a typical experiment, Mendel crossed purebred tall-stemmed plants with purebred short-stemmed plants (parental or P generation). The first-generation or F1 generation resulted in all tall-stemmed plants. The subsequent, F2 generation had about 75% tall and 25% short- stemmed plants. Chromosomes and Inheritance The cell nucleus of most organisms contains chromosomes. The number of chromosomes is unique for each species. Each chromosome is made up of thousands of different genes which contain the instructions for an organism’s traits. Phenotypes and Genotypes A phenotype is the physical appearance of a particular organism. The genotype is the genetic make-up of a particular organism. Punnett Square A Punnett Square is a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that result from a genetic cross. A capital letter (B) is used to represent a dominant trait and a lowercase letter (b) the recessive trait. Dominant and Recessive Alleles Mendel began to notice that some of the pea plants had similar traits as their parents. He hypothesized that each parent passes to the offspring a factor or a set of genetic “information” which controls a trait. The factors now called genes exist in pairs known as alleles, one inherited from each parent. An allele is a different form of a gene. A dominant allele is one whose trait will always show up in its presence. A recessive allele is one whose trait will be masked whenever the dominant allele is present. Gregor Mendel Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) an Austrian monk is known for his pea plant experiments that demonstrated the process of heredity. His discoveries form the foundation of genetics the study of heredity. www.newpathlearning.com © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4603 Genetics: The Study of Heredity tall short short
1 2 B B b b B B b b tall tall tall tall tall bb BB Bb Key Vocabulary Terms allele inheritance chromosome nucleolus DNA strand nucleus dominant parent experiment phenotype gene Punnett Square generation purebred genotype recessive heredity trait Mendel’s Experiments Describe Mendel’s typical experiment below: ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ Chromosomes and Inheritance The cell nucleus of most organisms contains ___________________. The number of chromosomes is unique for each species. Each chromosome is made up of thousands of different ___________________ which contain the instructions for an organism’s traits. Phenotypes and Genotypes What is the difference between a phenotype and genotype? ____________________________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Punnett Square What is a Punnett Square? ______________________________ ______________________________________________________ Complete the Punnet Square below: Dominant and Recessive Alleles Describe: trait _____________________________________________________ gene _____________________________________________________ allele _____________________________________________________ dominant _____________________________________________________ recessive _____________________________________________________ Gregor Mendel Who is Gregor Mendel? __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ www.newpathlearning.com © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4603 Genetics: The Study of Heredity tall short short seed shape seed color pod shape pod color stem height short (recessive) green smooth yellow green round re ce ss iv e al le le do m in an t al le le wrinkled pinched yellow tall (dominant) \|xiBAHBDy01750pzY
Seedless Nonvascular Plants Plants are placed in two major groups nonvascular plants and vascular plants. Nonvascular plants lack roots and a system of tubes for transporting water and nutrients. They absorb water and nutrients directly from their environment. Vascular plants have a well-developed system of tubes for transporting materials throughout the plant’s body. Liverworts, mosses and hornworts grow in moist areas where they can absorb water and nutrients directly from their surroundings. Seed Plants Seed plants are vascular and use pollen and seeds to reproduce. There are two main groups of seed plants gymnosperms and angiosperms. Angiosperms An angiosperm is a owering plant that produces seeds enclosed in fruit. There are two major groups of angiosperms– monocots and dicots. Types of Angiosperms Ferns, club mosses and horsetails have vascular tissue and reproduce by releasing spores. Plants without Seeds Seedless Vascular Plants moss on a tree liverworts hornworts club mosses ferns horsetail Seed Structure Types of Gymnosperms A gymnosperm plant produces naked seeds which are not covered by a protective fruit. Cycads - palm tree Ginkgoes - Ginkgo biloba leaves corn Gymnosperms lily rice bean plant apple tree dandelions Seed Leaf Stem Flower Plant part Monocots Dicots One cotyledon Parallel veins Bundles of scattered vascular tissue Flower in three parts Two cotyledons Branching veins Bundles of vascular tissue arranged in a ring Flower in four or five parts Comparing Monocots & Dicots corn bean pine seed coat embryo embryo seed coat seed coat stored food embryo stored food Gnetophyte - Welwitschia stored food Photos courtesy of USDA, NOAA & USFWS. Conifers - pine tree Introduction to Plants © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4604 www.newpathlearning.com
\|xiBAHBDy01750pzY Seedless Nonvascular Plants ________________, ________________ and ________________ grow in moist areas where they can absorb water and nutrients directly from their surroundings. Seed Plants The two main groups of seed plants are ___________________ and ___________________. Angiosperms An ___________________ is a owering plant that produces seeds enclosed in fruit. There are two major groups of angiosperms ___________________ and ___________________. Types of Angiosperms ________________, ________________ and ________________ have vascular tissue and reproduce by releasing spores. Plants without Seeds Seedless Vascular Plants A ___________________ plant produces naked seeds which are not covered by a protective fruit. Cycads - palm tree Ginkgoes - Ginkgo biloba leaves Gymnosperms Monocots s t o c i D t r a p t n a l P Seed Leaf Stem Flower _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ Comparing Monocots & Dicots Gnetophyte - Welwitschia Conifers - pine tree Introduction to Plants © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4604 www.newpathlearning.com Key Vocabulary Terms angiosperms monocot dicot nonvascular embryo roots ower seed coat fruit spores gymnosperms stem leaf vascular Describe the following: Nonvascular plants __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Vascular plants __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Seed Structure stored food stored food stored food Types of Gymnosperms
Invertebrates Vertebrates Cnidarians Echinoderms Fishes Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals Segmented worms Spiders Centipedes Insects Crustaceans Mollusks Roundworms Flatworms Sponges Arthropods Skeletal System organ tissue cell Characteristics of Animals Animals cannot make their own food. Animals digest their food. Most animals are capable of movement. Animals are multicellular (have many cells). Animal cells are eukaryotic. Each cell has a nucleus and organelles surrounded by membranes. Most animals undergo sexual reproduction. Structure of Animals The bodies of most animals (all except sponges) are made up of cells organized into tissues. Each tissue is specialized to perform a specific function. In most animals, tissues are organized into even more specialized organs. Organs are organized into organ systems. Functions of Animals Obtain food and oxygen Maintain stable conditions within their bodies Move in order to meet basic survival needs Reproduce Animal Symmetry If you have ever looked into a mirror, you will notice that you could draw a line down the center of your face and the arrangement of facial structures will be balanced. This is called symmetry and it is an important characteristic of most of animals. There are two types of symmetry: bilateral and radial symmetry. Bilateral Symmetry Radial Symmetry No Symmetry Biologists so far have discovered over 1.5 million different types of animals. Animals are grouped according to how they are related to other animals. This branching tree shows how major animal groups are possibly related. Major Animal Groups Introduction to Animals © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4605 www.newpathlearning.com
Invertebrates Vertebrates Arthropods Characteristics of Animals Characteristics of animals include: __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ Structure of Animals The bodies of most animals (all except sponges) are made up of cells organized into ________________. Each ________________is specialized to perform a specific function. In most animals, tissues are organized into even more specialized ________________. Organs are organized into ________________. Functions of Animals Functions of animals include: _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ Animal Symmetry If you have ever looked into a mirror, you will notice that you could draw a line down the center of your face and the arrangement of facial structures will be balanced. This is called ________________ and it is an important characteristic of most of animals. There are two types of symmetry: ________________ and _______________. How are animals grouped? ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Major Animal Groups Key Vocabulary Terms amphibians mollusks bilateral symmetry multicellular centipedes organs cnidarians radial symmetry crustaceans reproduction echinoderms reptiles eukaryotic roundworms fishes segmented worms Introduction to Animals © Copyright N ewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4605 www.newpathlearning.com \|xiBAHBDy01753qzZ
Rainforest Forest Grasslands Taiga Desert Tundra Producers Decomposers Producers Decomposers 1st Level Consumers 2nd Level Consumers 3rd Level Consumers 1st Level Consumers 2nd Level Consumers 3rd Level Consumers Food Chain Food Web Energy Roles Energy enters an ecosystem as sunlight and is turned into food by plants. The energy is transferred to organisms that eat producers and transferred again when organisms eat consumers. Consumers are animals that cannot make their own food. They get their energy from plants, other animals or both. Producers are green plants that produce their own food using energy from sunlight in a process called photosynthesis. Decomposers such as bacteria and fungi break down decaying matter for food. Biomes A large ecosystem of plants and animals in a region with a certain type of climate is called a biome. Food Chain A food chain is a model that shows how energy is passed from one organism to another. Food Web A food web is an interconnected series of different food chains that describes the feeding relationships between species within an ecosystem. IN C R E A S IN G N U M B E R O F O R G A N IS M S D E C R E A S IN G A M O U N T O F E N E R G Y Red fox Snake Mouse Rabbit Grasshopper Shrew Woodpecker Fungi Worms Bacteria Carpenter ant Trees Grass © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4606 www.newpathlearning.com Ecosystems,Food Chains & Food Webs Consumer Herbivore Consumer Omnivore Decomposer Producer
Rainforest Forest Grasslands Taiga Desert Tundra Food Chain Food Web Biomes A large ecosystem of plants and animals in a region with a certain type of climate is called a _____________________. A ________________________ _____________________is a model that shows how energy is passed from one organism to another. A ________________________ ____________________ is an interconnected series of different food chains that describe the feeding relationships between species within an ecosystem. IN C R E A S IN G N U M B E R O F O R G A N IS M S D E C R E A S IN G A M O U N T O F E N E R G Y Red fox Snake Mouse Rabbit Grasshopper Shrew Woodpecker Fungi Worms Bacteria Carpenter ant Trees © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4606 www.newpathlearning.com Ecosystems,Food Chains & Food Webs Key Vocabulary Terms biome food web consumer herbivore decomposer omnivore ecosystem organisms energy photosynthesis food chain producer Energy Roles _____________________ enters an ecosystem as _____________________ and is turned into food by plants. The energy is transferred to organisms that eat ___________________ and transferred again when organisms eat consumers. _____________________ are animals that cannot make their own food. They get energy from plants, other animals or both. _____________________ are green plants that produce their own food using energy from sunlight in a process called photosynthesis. _____________________ such as bacteria and fungi break down decaying matter for food. \|xiBAHBDy01746sz\ Grass
SHIELD VOLCANO COMPOSITE VOLCANO CINDER CONE What is a volcano? A volcano is a rupture in the surface of one of Earth’s plates which allows hot, molten rock, ash, and gases to escape from below the surface. Ash cloud An ash cloud consists of bits of pulverized rock that spews into the air during a volcanic eruption. Crater At the top of many volcanoes is a funnel-shaped depression or crater formed during an eruption. Caldera A caldera is a circular depression that forms when a magma reservoir empties and causes the ground above to sink. Lava Lava is magma that flows on the Earth’s surface. Vent Pipe Geyser A geyser is a natural fountain that shoots hot groundwater and steam hundreds of feet into the sky at regular intervals. Basalt plain A basalt plain is a new crust that forms from lava that spills out onto nearby ground. Magma reservoir The intense heat and pressures in the mantle turn solid rock into liquid magma. Types of volcanoes Volcanoes can also be classified based on their shape. The three categories are cinder cones, shield volcanoes and composite volcanoes. Volcanoes © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4607 www.newpathlearning.com Mount Saint Helens, 1980 crater central vent central vent central vent magma chamber layers of cinders ash layer lava layer side vent
What is a volcano? A ______________________ is a rupture in the surface of one of Earth’s plates which allows hot, molten rock, ash, and gases to escape from below the surface. Types of volcanoes Volcanoes can also be classified based on their shape. The three categories are: ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ An _____________ _____________ consists of bits of pulverized rock that spews into the air during a volcanic eruption. At the top of many volcanoes is a _____________________ or _____________________ formed during an eruption. A _____________________ is a __________________ ___________________ that forms when a _____________ ______________ empties and causes the ground above to sink. Lava is ____________________ that flows on the Earth’s surface. A ______________________ is a natural fountain that shoots hot groundwater and steam hundreds of feet into the sky at regular intervals. A ______________________ is a new crust that forms from lava that spills out onto nearby ground. The intense heat and pressures in the mantle turn solid rock into liquid ____________________ . Key Vocabulary Terms Type of volcano: Type of volcano: Type of volcano: Volcanoes © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4607 www.newpathlearning.com \|xiBAHBDy01796nzW
The Sun The Sun is at the center of our solar system. It is a gigantic star made up of hot gases called plasma. The Sun’s energy is fueled by nuclear fusion reactions and makes all life possible on Earth. The Earth’s Moon The moon is a dry and airless place. It is the second brightest object in the sky after the Sun. Its surface is covered with pockmarks created by the impact of meteorites. The Moon revolves around Earth and also rotates on its own axis. It makes one complete revolution around the Earth every 27.3 days. The Moon is in what scientists call synchronous rotation. This means that the same side of the Moon faces the Earth at all times. Earth’s Seasons The Earth is simultaneously spinning on its axis (rotation) and revolving around the Sun. As the Earth revolves around the Sun, the degree to which various points on the globe are pointing toward or away from the Sun determines the seasons at those points. Photographic images courtesy of NASA. Spring Summer Fall Winter Phases of the Moon The revolution of the moon around the Earth makes it appear to look different to us throughout the month. At times we see the entire moon and at others, only a portion of it, with the rest being in shadow. The different appearances of the moon throughout the month are known as the moon’s phases. When the portion of the moon that is lit by sunlight is getting larger, the moon is said to be waxing. When that portion is getting smaller, it is said to be waning. full waning gibbous first quarter waning crescent new waxing crescent third quarter axis rotation revolution Seasons in the Northern Hemisphere waxing gibbous © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4608 www.newpathlearning.com sunspot solar flare photosphere chromosphere radiation zone convection zone core Sun, Earth, Moon System
© Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4608 www.newpathlearning.com Photographic images courtesy of NASA. Spring Summer Fall Winter Describe the Sun. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ The Earth’s Moon Describe Earth’s Moon. _______________________________ _______________________________ The Moon makes one complete __________________ around the Earth every 27.3 days. The Moon is in what scientists call _________________ ________________. This means that the same side of the moon faces the Earth at all times. Phases of the Moon The __________________ of the moon around the Earth makes it appear to look different to us throughout the month. At times we see the entire moon and at others, only a portion of it, with the rest being in shadow. The different appearances of the moon throughout the month are known as the ________________________ ____________________________.