Copyright © NewPath Learning. All rights reserved. www.newpathlearning.com Charts Charts Grade Grade 555 \|xiBAHBDy01210ozX 34-5001 Sturdy, Free-Standing Design, Perfect for Learning Centers! Reverse Side Features Questions, Labeling Exercises, Vocabulary Review & more!
Phone: 800-507-0966 • Fax: 800-507-0967 www.newpathlearning.com NewPath Learning® products are developed by teachers using research-based principles and are classroom tested. The company’s product line consists of an array of proprietary curriculum review games, workbooks, posters and other print materials. All products are supplemented with web-based activities, assessments and content to provide an engaging means of educating students on key, curriculum-based topics correlated to applicable state and national education standards. Copyright © 2009 NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Curriculum Mastery® and NewPath Learning® are registered trademarks of NewPath Learning LLC. Science Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts provide comprehensive coverage of key standards-based curriculum in an illustrated format that is visually appealing, engaging and easy to use. Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts can be used with the entire classroom, with small groups or by students working independently. Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart Set features • 10 double-sided laminated charts covering grade-level specific curriculum content on one side plus write-on/wipe-off charts on reverse side for student use or for small-group instruction. • Built-in sturdy free-standing easel for easy display • Spiral bound for ease of use • Activity Guide with black-line masters of the charts for students to fill-in, key vocabulary terms, corresponding quiz questions for each chart, along with answers Ideal for • Learning centers • In class instruction for interactive presentations and demonstrations • Hands-on student use • Stand alone reference for review of key science concepts • Teaching resource to supplement any program HOW TO USE Classroom Use Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart can be used to graphically introduce or review a topic of interest. Side 1 of each Flip Chart provides graphical representation of key concepts in a concise, grade appropriate reading level for instructing students. The reverse Side 2 of each Flip Chart allows teachers or students to fill in the call-outs of key structures and summarize key concepts. Note: Be sure to use an appropriate dry-erase marker and to test it on a small section of the chart prior to using it. The Activity Guide included provides a black-line master of each Flip Chart which students can use to fill in before, during, or after instruction. On the reverse side of each black-line master are questions corresponding to each Flip Chart topic which can be used as further review or as a means of assessment. While the activities in the guide can be used in conjunction with the Flip Charts, they can also be used individually for review or as a form of assessment or in conjunction with any other related assignment. Learning Centers Each Flip Chart provides students with a quick illustrated view of grade-appropriate curriculum concepts. Students may use these Flip Charts in small group settings along with the corresponding activity pages contained in the guide to learn or review concepts already covered in class. Students may also use these charts as reference while playing the NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Independent student use Students can use the hands-on Flip Charts to practice and learn independently by first studying Side 1 of the chart and then using Side 2 of the chart or the corresponding graphical activities contained in the guide to fill in the answers and assess their understanding. Reference/Teaching resource Curriculum Mastery® Charts are a great visual supplement to any curriculum or they can be used in conjunction with NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Chart # 1: Chart # 2: Chart # 3: Chart # 4: Chart # 5: Chart # 6: Chart # 7: Chart # 8: Chart # 9: Chart #10: The Six Kingdoms of Life Roots, Stems & Leaves Flowers & Seeds Cycles of Life & Biomes Landforms, Rocks & Soil Earth’s Freshwater & Atmosphere Elements, Mixtures & Compounds Acids & Bases Newton’s Laws of Motion Sound & Light
Photos courtesy of NOAA, USFWS, USDA, NIH. Archaebacteria Protists Plants Eubacteria Fungi Animals Classification Plants and animals are classified according to the structures and characteristics of each organism. The characteristics that scientists consider when classifying organisms include the number of cells an organism is made up of, the presence or absence of a cell nucleus, how it obtains food, and how an organism moves. The order of the 6-Kingdom classification system is Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species. The kingdom is the largest group of organisms. A species is the smallest, most specific group of organisms. Archaebacteria are unicellular organisms without a cell nucleus. They can make their own food and live in harsh conditions such as in very salty water or in very hot, acid springs. Most protists are single-celled organisms with a cell nucleus. Protists such as algae live in colonies, make their own food and are food for other animals. Most fungi are multicellular with a cell nucleus. Fungi recycle dead organic matter into useful nutrients which they absorb and use as food. Yeasts, molds and mushrooms are examples of fungi. Some fungi, such as mushrooms, are used directly as food while others are used to make medicines, such as penicillin. There are 4 well known plant phyla which include flowering plants, mosses, ferns and conifers. Flowering plants are vascular and produce seeds and flowers. Vascular plants have tubes that carry water and food throughout the entire plant. Ferns are vascular; they do not flower and use spores to reproduce. Mosses are nonvascular and have no flowers or seeds. Conifers are vascular and have needles instead of leaves. They do not flower and reproduce using cones and seeds. The animal kingdom is divided into two main groups. Animals with backbones are called vertebrates, and animals without a backbone are called invertebrates. Vertebrates are divided into more than 30 phyla. Organisms that have a spinal cord belong to the phylum chordata. Vertebrate animals are a subphylum of this group and are divided into five classes – fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Invertebrates are the most abundant organisms on Earth. They are classified into phyla based on their structure and characteristics. Example include mollusks, annelids, cnidarians, arthropods, sponges, and echinoderms. Eubacteria are unicellular organisms without a cell nucleus. They have various shapes which range from spheres to rods and spirals. While some eubacteria cause disease, there are many types that are beneficial to humans. Eubacteria are all around us, including inside our bodies. They help us with digestion and the production of certain vitamins. The Six Kingdoms of Life © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4501 www.newpathlearning.com
\|xiBAHBDy01723tz] Photos courtesy of NOAA, USFWS, USDA, NIH. Archaebacteria Protists Plants Eubacteria Fungi Animals Classification Archaebacteria are ______________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________. Fungi are _____________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________. The animal kingdom is divided into ____________________________________. Vertebrates are ______________________ ____________________________________. Invertebrates are _____________________________. Vertebrate animals are divided into five classes: _____________________________________________ Examples of invertebrate animals include: __________________________________ _______________________________ ____________________________. Eubacteria are _________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ . • chordata • class • classification • colonies • family • genus • invertebrate • kingdom • multicellular • order • phylum • species • unicellular • vertebrate How are plants and animals classified? ________________________________________________________ What are the characteristics scientists consider when classifying organisms? _________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ What is the order of the 6-Kingdom classification system? _________________________________________ Describe the following: Flowering plants ___________________ __________________________________ Vascular __________________________ __________________________________ Ferns ____________________________ __________________________________ Mosses ___________________________ __________________________________ Conifers __________________________ __________________________________ The Six Kingdoms of Life © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4501 www.newpathlearning.com Key Vocabulary Terms
© Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4502 www.newpathlearning.com Roots Plants have various structures, each serving a different purpose for keeping a plant alive and healthy. Plant roots anchor the plant firmly into the soil, store food, and most importantly absorb water and nutrients from the soil. Stems Plant stems perform two basic functions: they support the leaves and flowers and they carry water and nutrients within the plant. The xylem carries water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves. The phloem carries sugar away from leaves to the rest of the plant. leaf roots node terminal bud stem The Process of Photosynthesis Plants make food in the form of sugar through the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast of a plant cell. Chlorophyll found in the chloroplast of the plant cell absorbs sunlight. Plants use carbon dioxide they take in from the air around them, water they get from the soil through their roots, and energy from the Sun to produce oxygen and sugar. xylem stomate spongy tissue epidermis cuticle phloem vessels stomate oxygen (O2) out carbon dioxide (CO2) in tap root fibrous root Leaves Most of a plant’s food is made in the leaves. A leaf is made of many layers that are sandwiched between two layers of tough skin cells called the epidermis. These layers provide protection for the leaf from insects and other pests. Leaves have tiny pores called stomates which allow water and gases to pass in and out of the plant. bark pith (heartwood) xylem phloem (inner bark) xylem phloem pith soft stem woody stem Plant cell Leaf details xylem phloem root hairs epidermis Plants have two different root systems. A taproot system consists of one main large root that grows directly down into the soil. A fibrous root system consists of many roots that grow underground in many directions. cell membrane chloroplast nucleus cell wall vacuole CHLOROPLAST SUGAR OXYGEN CO2 WATER Roots, Stems & Leaves
\|xiBAHBDy01722mzV © Copyright N ewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4502 www.newpathlearning.com woody stem Roots What is the function of roots? _________________________ _________________________ Describe the two plant root systems. _________________________ _________________________ Stems What is the function of stems? _______________________ _________________________________________________ What is the function of xylem? _______________________ _________________________________________________ What is the function of phloem? ______________________ _________________________________________________ The Process of Photosynthesis What is photosynthesis and how does it take place? _______________________________ _______________________________ What is the function of chloroplasts? _______________________________ _______________________________ What is the function of chlorophyll? _______________________________ _______________________________ Leaves What is the function of leaves? ________________ __________________________________________ What is the epidermis? ______________________ __________________________________________ What are stomata? _________________________ _______________________ Plant cell Leaf details Key Vocabulary Terms Key Vocabulary Terms • bark • pith • cell membrane • phloem • cell wall • photosynthesis • chlorophyll • root hairs • chloroplast • roots • cuticle • spongy tissue • cytoplasm • stem • epidermis • stomate • fibrous root • tap root • leaf • vacuole • nucleus • xylem oxygen (O2) out carbon dioxide (CO2) in CHLOROPLAST SUGAR OXYGEN CO2 WATER Roots, Stems & Leaves
Flower parts pistil style stigma ovary eggs petal sepal anther stamen filament sperm travels down tubes to eggs pollen transferred to stigma insect picks up pollen from anthers ovary eggs pollen pollen tubes grow down to ovary seed coat embryo endosperm (cotyledons) germinating seed seedling Flower Pollination & Fertilization In order for a seed to form, pollen has to get from a stamen to a pistil. Insects, animals and wind make this happen. Cross-pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower. Self-pollination is the transfer of pollen from anther to stigma on the same flower or to the stigma of another flower on the same plant. Once pollen grains land on a pistil, pollen tubes grow from the pollen through the pistil to the bottom of the ovary. Sperm cells from the pollen travel through the pollen tubes to join the egg cells in the ovary of the flower. The joining of an egg cell with a sperm cell is called fertilization which results in forming a seed. The Structure of a Seed Most plants begin as a seed. The outer layer of a seed is the seed coat which provides protection. The embryo is inside the seed; it’s a new plant ready to germinate. The endosperm is stored food for the new plant. How do seeds get around? Seeds are dispersed in several different ways. Seeds sometimes just fall from the parent flower onto the soil nearby the parent plant. Other seeds are dispersed by animals moving them from one place to another. Still others are eaten by animals and then go through the animal’s digestive system. When the animal rids its body of waste, the seeds are then dispersed in soil where the seeds can germinate when the conditions are right. Germination When the conditions are right, a seed will germinate. Roots will grow out from the seed and down into the soil. The stem of the plant will then grow upwards. This seed travels with the wind. This seed hitches a ride on animal fur. Seeds can be found in all shapes and colors. These seeds might be eaten by animals and transported through their digestive tracts! The Structure of a Flower The flower is the seed factory of the plant – it is where the flower produces seeds. A flower’s sepals cover a developing flower bud protecting it while it grows. The petals of a flower are often bright and colorful which aids in pollination by attracting insects and animals to the flower. The stamen is the male organ of a flower and includes the anther and the filament. The anther contains pollen that is a necessary for plant reproduction. The pistil is the female organ of a flower and includes the stigma, style & ovary. Eggs can be found in the ovary. A perfect flower is a flower with both a stamen and a pistil. An imperfect flower is a flower with only a stamen or a pistil but not both. 1 2 3 4 All About Seeds © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 9 4-4503 www.newpathlearning.com Flowers and Seeds
Key Vocabulary Terms • anther • pistil • dispersal • pollen • egg • pollen tube • embryo • pollination • endosperm • seed coat • fertilization • seedling • filament • sepal • flower • sperm • germinate • stamen • ovary • stigma • petal • style All About Seeds Flower Pollination & Fe rtilization Cross-pollination is ___________________________ ____________________________________________ . Self-pollination is _____________________________ ____________________________________________ . Describe the process of pollination: _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ The Structure of a Seed Describe the parts of a seed. __________________________ How do seeds get around? Describe some of the ways that seeds are dispersed. __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Germination Describe the process of germination. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ The Structure of a Flower What is the purpose of a flower? ________________ ___________________________________________ Describe the following plant structures: Eggs ________________________ Ovary _______________________ Petals _____________________________________ Pistil ______________________________________ Sepals ____________________________________ Stamen ___________________________________ What is a perfect flower? _____________________ ___________________________________________ What is an imperfect flower? __________________ __________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 © Copyright N ewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4503 www.newpathlearning.com Flowers and Seeds Flower parts \|xiBAHBDy01714rzu
A rainforest is a warm ecosystem made up of many different varieties of plant & animal life and receives large amounts of rain. A deciduous forest is a forest with a cooler climate and not a lot of rain. Grasslands have tall grasses but no trees. This ecosystem receives very little rain which is why trees do not grow here. A desert is an area of land that receives less than 25 cm of rain each year. There are hot and cold deserts. Some deserts are hot during the day and cold at night. Tundra is a very cold ecosystem that receives little rain; its soil is frozen most of the year. Taiga is a cold and dry climate. Animals need to have thick fur or feathers to keep warm in this ecosystem. Biomes of the World – A biome is a large ecosystem with similar organisms and climate. The Nitrogen Cycle oxygen 21% nitrogen 78% Ea rth ’s Atmosphe re other 1% Nitrogen is the main component of proteins, the building blocks of cells. It is a common element in Earth’s air and essential for all life on Earth. Like water, nitrogen is cycled through the environment. Fire takes in oxygen (which makes it burn) and releases carbon dioxide into the air. The Carbon Cycle Carbon is the most common element in all living things. Carbon is recycled during photosynthesis, cellular respiration (process in which animals take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide), by the burning of fossil fuels, and by decomposition of dead matter. Decomposition Living things that break down waste or dead matter are called decomposers. This break down or decay adds nutrients such as nitrogen to the soil which is needed for plant growth. Nitrogen Cycle nitrogen returned to soil through decomposition nitrogen compounds reach the Earth through precipitation nitrogen is taken in by plants nitrogen fixing bacteria add nitrogen to soil animals eat plants; nitrogen is passed through food chain nitrogen compounds form in the atmosphere When animals and plants die and decompose, carbon dioxide is released into the air. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4504 www.newpathlearning.com Photos courtesy of NASA, NOAA, USFWS, USNPS. Cycles of Life & Biomes
___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Biomes of the World Describe the following biomes: The Nitrogen Cycle oxygen 21% nitrogen 78% Ea rth ’s Atmosph ere other 1% What is nitrogen? _______________________________________ ________________________________________________________ How is nitrogen recycled? __________________________________ ________________________________________________________ The Carbon Cycle What is carbon? ____________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ How is carbon recycled? _____________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Decomposition Nitrogen Cycle What is decomposition? _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ © Copyright N ewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4504 www.newpathlearning.com Photos courtesy of NASA, NOAA, USFWS, USNPS. Cycles of Life & Biom es Key Vocabulary Terms • biome • nitrogen • carbon • oxygen • carbon dioxide • photosynthesis • deciduous • rainforest • decomposer • respiration • decomposition • taiga • desert • tundra • grassland \|xiBAHBDy01713kzU
Weathering, Erosion & De position METAMORPHIC SEDIMENTARY IGNEOUS heat & pressure weathering & er osion melting The Rock Cycle The rock cycle is a combination of how rocks are made, erode, break apart and change from one type of rock to another. Sedimentary rocks form when layers of rock particles settle on top of each other and then harden together. Metamorphic rocks form when solid rocks are pressed together and heated to very high temperatures. Igneous rocks form when melted rock cools down and then hardens again. Crystals form during the cooling stage. Sedimentary Rocks sandstone halite limestone Metamorphic Rocks marble gneiss quartz pumice obsidian granite Igneous Rocks A volcano is an opening in the Earth’s crust through which lava, ash, and gases erupt when pressure is built up inside the Earth. Soil is the loose material that covers much of the Earth’s surface. It is made up of three main layers: topsoil, subsoil, and bedrock. Types of Rocks Rocks are made up of many tiny pieces of minerals. Minerals are natural, nonliving crystals that make up rocks. Earthquakes & Volcanoes Earthquakes and volcanoes also help create landforms. An earthquake is a sudden shift in the Earth’s crust that causes the ground to shake and vibrate violently. Most earthquakes happen near faults. Faults are fractures or cracks in the Earth’s crust which are caused by the movement or shifting of the Earth’s surface. Landforms are features that make up the Earth’s surface. They include mountains, plateaus, canyons, deltas, hills, valleys, and more. A topographic map shows the elevation of these landforms. Changes on the Earth’s surface are caused in part by weathering and erosion. Erosion is the wearing away of the Earth’s surface by rain, wind, snow, and ice. There are two kinds of erosion: mechanical weathering and chemical weathering. Mechanical weathering takes place when water and ice break down rocks into smaller pieces. During chemical weathering the rocks are broken down by the actions of chemicals in the air or water. seismic waves fault focus magma lava flow cloud of ash cone pipe 00 900 Contours on a topographic map show changes in elevation. physical weathering cracks worn surface This rock shows the effects of chemical weathering. topsoil subsoil bedrock Photos courtesy of USGS & USFWS. erosion Landforms, Rocks & Soil © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4505 www.newpathlearning.com
\|xiBAHBDy01728ozX METAMORPHIC SEDIMENTARY IGNEOUS heat & pressure weathering & er osion melting Weathering, Erosion & De position The Rock Cycle What is the rock cycle? ____________________________ ________________________________________________ Describe the following rock types: Sedimentary rocks _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ Metamorphic rocks _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ Igneous rocks _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ Metamorphic Rocks marble gneiss quartz pumice obsidian granite Igneous Rocks Sedimentary Rocks sandstone halite limestone What are the three main layers of soil? _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ Types of Rocks What are rocks? ___________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Earthquakes and Volcanoes Describe the following: Earthquake _________________________________________________ Fault _______________________________________________________ Volcano ____________________________________________________ What are landforms? ______________________ ________________________________________ What does a topographic map show? ________________________________________ ________________________________________ What causes changes on the Earth’s surface? ________________________________________ ________________________________________ 00 1400 900 Photos courtesy of USGS & USFWS. • bedrock • magma • chemical weathering • mechanical weathering • cone • metamorphic • cone of ash • mineral • earthquake • pipe • elevation • sedimentary • erosion • seismic wave • fault • subsoil • igneous • topographic map • landform • topsoil • lava • volcano Key Vocabulary Terms Landforms, Rocks & Soil © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4505 www.newpathlearning.com
er us s er p ci r e h ps o mt a s es a er c e d 10 km -52º C -93º C 1,727º C 50 km 85 km 600 km exo sph ere the rm osp her e me sos phe re str ato sph ere tro po sph ere evaporation condensation ocean river discharge precipitation precipitation water storage in snow evapotranspiration ru no ff in filt ra tio n water table Ea rth ’s Atmosphe re The Water Cycle Exosphere The exosphere starts at the top of the thermosphere and continues until it merges with space. Thermosphere The thermosphere starts just above the mesosphere and extends to 600 kilometers (372 miles) high. The temperature increases as you go up in altitude due to the Sun’s energy. Temperatures in this region can go as high as 1,727 degrees Celsius. This layer is known as the upper atmosphere. Mesosphere The mesosphere starts above the stratosphere and extends to 85 kilometers (53 miles) high. In this region, temperatures fall as low as -93 degrees Celsius as you increase in altitude. Stratosphere The stratosphere starts just above the troposphere and extends to 50 kilometers (31 miles) high. This part of the atmosphere is dry and less dense. Troposphere The troposphere starts at the Earth’s surface and extends 8 to 14.5 kilometers high (5 to 9 miles). This part of the atmosphere is the densest. As you climb higher in this layer, the temperature drops from about 17 to -52 degrees Celsius. Almost all weather is in this region. Earth’s Atmosphere Earth is surrounded by a blanket of air, which we call the atmosphere. It protects us by blocking out dangerous rays from the sun. The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that becomes thinner until it gradually reaches space. It is mostly made up of nitrogen, oxygen, and other gases and is divided into ﬁ ve layers. Earth’s Freshwater & Atmosphere © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4506 www.newpathlearning.com Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid. It covers approximately 75% of the Earth’s surface. Most of Earth’s water is saltwater. The water cycle describes the movement of water on, in, and above the Earth. Evaporation is the process by which water is changed from liquid to a gas or vapor. Condensation is the process by which water is changed from vapor to liquid. Precipitation is water released from clouds in the form of rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow, or hail. Water runoff is precipitation which travels over the soil surface to the nearest natural channel such as a river. Groundwater is water that exists below the Earth’s surface.
atmospheric p ressu re dec reases ocean river discharge water storage in snow water table The Water Cycle Earth’s Atmosphere What is Earth’s atmosphere? _________________________________________________________________ How important is Earth’s atmosphere? _________________________________________________________________ Describe the layers of Earth’s atmosphere? Exosphere ______________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Thermosphere ____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Mesosphere ______________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Stratosphere ____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Troposphere _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ What is the water cycle? _______________________________________________________________________________________ Describe the following: Evaporation _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Condensation _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Precipitation ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Water runoff ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Groundwater ________________________________________________________________________________________________ • atmosphere • condensation • evaporation • evapotranspiration • exosphere • groundwater • inﬁ ltration • mesosphere • nitrogen • oxygen • precipitation • runoff • stratosphere • thermosphere • troposphere • water vapor Key Vocabulary Terms Earth’s Freshwater & Atmosphere © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4506 www.newpathlearning.com Ea rth ’s Atmosphe re \|xiBAHBDy01727rzu
What are elements? Elements are the basic building blocks of matter. Each element is made up of one type of atom which determines its properties. What are atoms? An Atom is the smallest particle or component of an element that still has the same properties of that element. All atoms have a nucleus which usually contains both protons and neutrons. Neutrons have no electrical charge while protons have a positive charge. An atom is identified by its number of protons. For example, oxygen has 8 protons, which means no other atom has 8 protons. Atoms also contain electrons which have a negative charge and move around the nucleus. How are elements grouped? The Periodic Table groups elements in an organized fashion. Each element has its own unique chemical symbol. Elements in each column have similar chemical properties. Elements in each row are arranged according to the number of protons. The number of protons increases from left to right in each row. column row solid liquid gas not found in nature H2O (water) molecule H O H O2 molecule O O State at room temperature H 1 Hydrogen He 2 Helium Ne 10 Neon Ar 18 Argon Kr 36 Krypton Xe 54 Xenon Rn 86 Radon Br Hg 35 Bromine Cl 17 Chlorine F 9 Fluorine O 8 Oxygen N 7 Nitrogen C 6 Carbon B 5 Boron Li 3 Lithium Na 11 Sodium K 19 Potassium Ca 20 Calcium Rb 37 Rubidium Cs 55