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Earth’s Freshwater & Atmosphere

Science, Grade 5

er us s er p ci r e h ps o mt a s es a er c e d 10 km -52º C -93º C 1,727º C 50 km 85 km 600 km exo sph ere the rm osp her e me sos phe re str ato sph ere tro po sph ere evaporation condensation ocean river discharge precipitation precipitation water storage in snow evapotranspiration ru no ff in filt ra tio n water table Ea rth ’s Atmosphe re The Water Cycle Exosphere The exosphere starts at the top of the thermosphere and continues until it merges with space. Thermosphere The thermosphere starts just above the mesosphere and extends to 600 kilometers (372 miles) high. The temperature increases as you go up in altitude due to the Sun’s energy. Temperatures in this region can go as high as 1,727 degrees Celsius. This layer is known as the upper atmosphere. Mesosphere The mesosphere starts above the stratosphere and extends to 85 kilometers (53 miles) high. In this region, temperatures fall as low as -93 degrees Celsius as you increase in altitude. Stratosphere The stratosphere starts just above the troposphere and extends to 50 kilometers (31 miles) high. This part of the atmosphere is dry and less dense. Troposphere The troposphere starts at the Earth’s surface and extends 8 to 14.5 kilometers high (5 to 9 miles). This part of the atmosphere is the densest. As you climb higher in this layer, the temperature drops from about 17 to -52 degrees Celsius. Almost all weather is in this region. Earth’s Atmosphere Earth is surrounded by a blanket of air, which we call the atmosphere. It protects us by blocking out dangerous rays from the sun. The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that becomes thinner until it gradually reaches space. It is mostly made up of nitrogen, oxygen, and other gases and is divided into ve layers. Earth’s Freshwater & Atmosphere © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4506 Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid. It covers approximately 75% of the Earth’s surface. Most of Earth’s water is saltwater. The water cycle describes the movement of water on, in, and above the Earth. Evaporation is the process by which water is changed from liquid to a gas or vapor. Condensation is the process by which water is changed from vapor to liquid. Precipitation is water released from clouds in the form of rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow, or hail. Water runoff is precipitation which travels over the soil surface to the nearest natural channel such as a river. Groundwater is water that exists below the Earth’s surface.
atmospheric p ressu re dec reases ocean river discharge water storage in snow water table The Water Cycle Earth’s Atmosphere What is Earth’s atmosphere? _________________________________________________________________ How important is Earth’s atmosphere? _________________________________________________________________ Describe the layers of Earth’s atmosphere? Exosphere ______________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Thermosphere ____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Mesosphere ______________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Stratosphere ____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Troposphere _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ What is the water cycle? _______________________________________________________________________________________ Describe the following: Evaporation _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Condensation _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Precipitation ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Water runoff ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Groundwater ________________________________________________________________________________________________ atmosphere condensation evaporation evapotranspiration exosphere groundwater infi ltration mesosphere nitrogen oxygen precipitation runoff stratosphere thermosphere troposphere water vapor Key Vocabulary Terms Earth’s Freshwater & Atmosphere © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4506 Ea rth ’s Atmosphe re \|xiBAHBDy01727rzu