Science Grade 4

Science, Grade 4

Copyright © NewPath Learning. All rights reserved. Charts Charts Grade Grade 444 \|xiBAHBDy01209sz\ 34-4001 Sturdy, Free-Standing Design, Perfect for Learning Centers! Reverse Side Features Questions, Labeling Exercises, Vocabulary Review & more!
Phone: 800-507-0966 Fax: 800-507-0967 NewPath Learning® products are developed by teachers using research-based principles and are classroom tested. The company’s product line consists of an array of proprietary curriculum review games, workbooks, posters and other print materials. All products are supplemented with web-based activities, assessments and content to provide an engaging means of educating students on key, curriculum-based topics correlated to applicable state and national education standards. Copyright © 2009 NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Curriculum Mastery® and NewPath Learning® are registered trademarks of NewPath Learning LLC. Science Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts provide comprehensive coverage of key standards-based curriculum in an illustrated format that is visually appealing, engaging and easy to use. Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts can be used with the entire classroom, with small groups or by students working independently. Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart Set features 10 double-sided laminated charts covering grade-level specific curriculum content on one side plus write-on/wipe-off charts on reverse side for student use or for small-group instruction. Built-in sturdy free-standing easel for easy display Spiral bound for ease of use Activity Guide with black-line masters of the charts for students to fill-in, key vocabulary terms, corresponding quiz questions for each chart, along with answers Ideal for Learning centers In class instruction for interactive presentations and demonstrations Hands-on student use Stand alone reference for review of key science concepts Teaching resource to supplement any program HOW TO USE Classroom Use Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart can be used to graphically introduce or review a topic of interest. Side 1 of each Flip Chart provides graphical representation of key concepts in a concise, grade appropriate reading level for instructing students. The reverse Side 2 of each Flip Chart allows teachers or students to fill in the call-outs of key structures and summarize key concepts. Note: Be sure to use an appropriate dry-erase marker and to test it on a small section of the chart prior to using it. The Activity Guide included provides a black-line master of each Flip Chart which students can use to fill in before, during, or after instruction. On the reverse side of each black-line master are questions corresponding to each Flip Chart topic which can be used as further review or as a means of assessment. While the activities in the guide can be used in conjunction with the Flip Charts, they can also be used individually for review or as a form of assessment or in conjunction with any other related assignment. Learning Centers Each Flip Chart provides students with a quick illustrated view of grade-appropriate curriculum concepts. Students may use these Flip Charts in small group settings along with the corresponding activity pages contained in the guide to learn or review concepts already covered in class. Students may also use these charts as reference while playing the NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Independent student use Students can use the hands-on Flip Charts to practice and learn independently by first studying Side 1 of the chart and then using Side 2 of the chart or the corresponding graphical activities contained in the guide to fill in the answers and assess their understanding. Reference/Teaching resource Curriculum Mastery® Charts are a great visual supplement to any curriculum or they can be used in conjunction with NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Chart # 1: Chart # 2: Chart # 3: Chart # 4: Chart # 5: Chart # 6: Chart # 7: Chart # 8: Chart # 9: Chart #10: Cells - The Building Blocks of Living Things Invertebrates - Animals Without Backbones Vertebrates - Animals With Backbones Animal Growth & Repr oduction Food Chains & Food Webs Rocks & Minerals Earth - Inside & Out Weather & Climate Force, Motion & Energy Electricity & Magnetism
Cells -The Building Blocks of Living Things © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4401 vacuole vacuole nucleus cell wall cell membrane chloroplast mitochondria cell membrane nucleus cytoplasm Animal cell Plant cell Microorganisms Chloroplasts are only found in plant cells. Chloroplasts catch the sun’s energy and help plants make their own food. A microorganism is an organism that is too small to see with our eyes alone. Scientists are only able to view a microorganism through a microscope. Many microorganisms are unicellular. Cells are the building blocks of life. All living things are made of cells. A unicellular organism is made up of only one cell while a multicellular organism is made up of many cells. Cells have particular functions or roles. Some cells help the organism get energy; others get rid of wastes while others provide protection. Animal and plant cells have similar and different parts or organelles. Both cell types have a nucleus, cytoplasm and a cell membrane. The cell membrane separates the cell from everything outside the cell. It guards everything that comes in and out of the cell, protecting the cell. The nucleus is the control center of the cell. It makes sure that all the cell parts do their jobs in order to keep the cell working properly. Every cell is filled with a gel-like liquid called cytoplasm. The main job of the cytoplasm in a cell is to hold all cell parts in place. Vacuoles are found in the cytoplasm of most plant cells and some animal cells. Their function is to store materials needed by a cell and to remove unwanted debris. Mitochondria are rod-shaped organelles that provide cells with energy. Plant cells also have a cell wall, which an animal cell does not have. The main job of a plant’s cell wall is to support and protect the cell. It is located outside the plant cell’s cell membrane. Examples of unicellular organisms include amoebae and bacteria. amoeba paramecium bacteria
© Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4401 Describe the following: Nucleus __________________________________ __________________________________________ Cell membrane ____________________________ __________________________________________ Cytoplasm _________________________________ __________________________________________ Chloroplast ____________________________ __________________________________________ Cell wall _______________________________ __________________________________________ Vacuole ________________________________ __________________________________________ Mitochondrion _________________________ __________________________________________ Cells -The Building Blocks of Living Things Animal cell Microorganisms Plant cell What is a cell? ____________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ What is a multicellular organism? ___________________ _________________________________________________ What is a unicellular organism? _____________________ _________________________________________ How are plant and animal cells different? _____________________________________ _____________________________________ Key Vocabulary Terms Key Vocabulary Terms amoeba mitochondria bacteria multicellular cell membrane nucleus cell wall paramecium chloroplast unicellular cytoplasm vacuole \|xiBAHBDy01712nzW
sand dollar starfish clam foot hard shell earthworm dragonfly flat worm lobster spider hydra tentacle bud - new hydra Scientists classify animals into two major groups, vertebrates and invertebrates. Invertebrates are animals that do not have a backbone. Many invertebrates do not have hard body parts either, though some do. There are many different invertebrates living on Earth. In fact, most of the organisms living on Earth are invertebrates. Scientists classify invertebrates into broad groups called phyla, based on their symmetry and body plan. The major groups of invertebrates are cnidarians, echinoderms, mollusks, worms, sponges, and arthropods. Jellyfish (a cnidarian) have soft bodies and long stinging tentacles that are poisonous. Sea anemones look like flowers in the sea and live attached to objects on the ocean floor. Coral reefs are a mass or ridge of living coral that need sunshine and warm waters to survive. Coral reefs live in warm, shallow sea waters. Coral reefs provide a protective living environment for a large variety of invertebrate marine life. Crustaceans are arthropods and include crabs and lobsters. They have hard external shells that protect their soft bodies. They show bilateral body symmetry. nautilus - mollusk jellyfish fly shrimp - crustacean octopus- mollusk Cnidarians include hydra, jellyfish, and sea anemones. All cnidarians have stinging cells which they use to catch food. Arthropods are the largest animal phylum. Arthropods’ skeletons are on the outside of their bodies. All arthropods have segmented bodies and jointed legs. Insects, crabs, centipedes, millipedes, and spiders are all examples of arthropods. Worms are invertebrates that have long, soft bodies and no legs. Roundworms, such as earthworms, have segmented bodies which mean their bodies are divided into sections. Flatworms, such as tapeworms, have flat simpler bodies. Mollusks have soft bodies and most have shells. Snails, clams, and octopus are types of mollusks. Mollusks move by using a structure called a foot. Its foot produces slime that helps them move easier along the ground. Echinoderms are invertebrates that live in the ocean. Examples include starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers. Echinoderms show radial symmetry. Invertebrates - Animals without Backbones © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4402 Animal Kingdom Invertebrates Phylum Cnidarians Arthropods Worms Mollusks Echinoderms Porifera
Describe the following: Cnidarians ________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Arthropods _______________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Roundworms ______________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Flatworms ________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Mollusks _________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Echinoderms ______________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Crustaceans _______________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ What are invertebrate animals? _____________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ How are invertebrate animals classified? ______________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ What is a Coral reef? _________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Key Vocabulary Terms anemone mollusk arthropod nautilus classify octopus cnidarian roundworm crustacean shrimp echinoderm spider flatworm sponge insect starfish invertebrate symmetry jellyfish tentacles Animal Kingdom Invertebrates Phylum Cnidarians Arthropods Worms Mollusks Echinoderms Porifera Invertebrates - Animals without Backbones © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4402 \|xiBAHBDy01719mzV
Reptiles Amphibians Fish Birds Mammals Animals can be classified, or grouped together, by the things they have in common, how they act, where they live, or how they look. Scientists divide animals into two main groups: animals that have a backbone and those that do not have a backbone. These two groups are called vertebrates and invertebrates. Vertebrates are animals that have a backbone. Scientists sort vertebrates into five main groups: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Fish are vertebrates that live their whole life in water. Most fish have bodies that are covered with scales. Some are very colorful. Fish get oxygen through their gills. Most fish lay eggs. Some fish live in salt water, some live in fresh water. Birds use their lungs to breathe. All birds have wings and feathers, but not all of them can fly. Birds lay eggs and are warm-blooded. Birds have adapted to live in many different environments, including the Antarctic! Mammals are vertebrates that have hair or fur. Mammals breathe through their lungs. They have live births and produce milk to feed their young. When mammals are born they already look a lot like their parents. Reptiles have tough, dry skin covered in scales. The majority of reptiles live on land. Reptiles use their lungs to breathe. Most reptiles lay eggs. Examples of reptiles include alligators, turtles and snakes. Amphibians spend part of their lives in water and part of their lives on land, therefore, they breathe with both gills and lungs during their lifetime. Amphibians are covered with smooth skin. Most lay eggs instead of having live births. Frogs, newts, and salamanders are examples of amphibians. Some animals are warm-blooded while others are cold-blooded. Warm-blooded animals control their own body temperature and try to keep their insides at a constant temperature no matter what the temperature is around them. The internal temperature of cold-blooded animals depends on the outside temperature around them. Cold-blooded Animals Warm-blooded Animals scales gills Vertebrates - Animals with Backbones © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4403 Animal Kingdom Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrates Classes Fish Reptiles Amphibians Birds Mammals
Reptiles Amphibians Birds Mammals Warm-blooded Animals Fish What are vertebrate animals? ___________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Describe fish: ________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Describe birds: _____________ ________________________________ _____________________________________ __________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ Describe mammals: ____________________________ _____________________________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ Describe reptiles: ____________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Describe amphibians: _______________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ What is the difference between warm-blooded and cold-blooded animals? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Cold-blooded Animals amphibian lungs backbone mammal bird reptile body temperature scales cold-blooded vertebrate fish warm-blooded gills Key Vocabulary Terms © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4403 Vertebrates - Animals with Backbones \|xiBAHBDy01724qzZ
adult tadpole tadpole with legs froglet eggs Incomplete Metamorphosis Complete Metamorphosis Like all amphibians, frogs spend their lives near water because they must return to the water to lay their eggs. Animals produce offspring in a variety of ways. For example, many animals have live births. The offspring develops inside the female parent which gives birth to the live young. Other organisms, like chickens and frogs, lay eggs instead of having live births. Animal life cycles vary in how long they take. Some animals have short life cycles while others have longer. A life cycle is the stages of development an organism goes through starting from an egg to growing into an adult. Living organisms each have their own unique way of reproducing, giving birth, growing and developing. Butterflies and moths go through complete metamorphosis and undergo four stages of development: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Complete metamorphosis involves considerable changes with each stage of development. Metamorphosis is the process of a rather sudden change in the appearance and form of some animals while growing into an adult. While most insects go through complete metamorphosis, some such as dragonflies go through incomplete metamorphosis. This life cycle includes three stages of development: egg, nymph, and adult. Frog Life Cycle 1 Frog eggs are laid in water. 2 Frogs hatch from eggs as tadpoles. They breathe with gills and swim using a tail. 3 The froglet still has part of its tail and starts to breathe using its lungs. 4 By the time a froglet becomes an adult, its tail is reabsorbed. Butterfly Life Cycle adult eggs larva (caterpillar) pupa (chrysalis) eggs nymph adult Dragonfly Life Cycle Animal Growth & Reproduction © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4404 Mammals, like tigers, have live births. The offspring look like their parents from birth. 1 2 3 4
Incomplete Metamorphosis Complete Metamorphosis How do animals reproduce? _______________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ What is a life cycle? ______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ What is metamorphosis? __________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Describe the stages of incomplete metamorphosis. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Describe the stages of complete metamorphosis. ________________________________ ________________________________ Describe the stages of a frog life cycle. Frog Life Cycle adult life cycle amphibian live birth caterpillar metamorphosis chrysalis nymph eggs offspring froglet pupa hatch tadpole larva Key Vocabulary Terms 1 _________________________________ _________________________________ 2 _________________________________ _________________________________ 3 _________________________________ _________________________________ 4 _________________________________ _________________________________ Butterfly Life Cycle Dragonfly Life Cycle Animal Growth & Reproduction © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4404 1 2 3 4 \|xiBAHBDy01711qzZ
Producers are organisms, such as plants, that make their own food. Plants use sunlight to make their own food in a process known as photosynthesis. Consumers are organisms that eat other living things in order to get energy. Consumers include herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, and decomposers. A food web is a system of overlapping food chains. An ecosystem has many food chains. An animal can be the eaten by many different animals and therefore be a part of many different food chains. Herbivores get energy by eating only plants. Carnivores get energy by eating only other animals. Omnivores get energy by eating both plants and other animals. Many aquatic microorganisms are producers too. Food Chains and Energy Flow The main energy source for all living things on Earth is the Sun. The process of energy being captured by plants from the Sun, and then transferred from one organism to the next in a food chain, is referred to as energy flow. As the energy is passed on from organism to organism along a food chain, the amount of energy becomes less and less. The more links on the food chain, the less energy each animal gets along the way. Sunlight and plants are the two most important things an ecosystem needs in order to always have a supply of energy. Sun energy Food Chains & Food Webs © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4405
What is a producer? _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ What is a consumer? _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ Describe the following: Herbivores ________________________ __________________________________ Carnivores ________________________ __________________________________ Omnivores ________________________ __________________________________ Decomposers ______________________ __________________________________ carnivore consumer decomposer ecosystem energy flow food chain food web herbivore omnivore photosynthesis producer Key Vocabulary Terms How does energy flow within an ecosystem? _______________________________________ _______________________________________ What is a food chain? _______________________________________ _______________________________________ What is a food web? _______________________________________ _______________________________________ Sun energy Food Chains and Energy Flow Food Chains & Food Webs © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4405 \|xiBAHBDy01715ozX
Magma Erosion Weathering Transportation (Deposition) Heat & Pr essure (Metamorphism) Uplift Compaction (Cementation) SEDIMENTARY ROCK Heat & Pr essure (Metamorphism) IGNEOUS ROCK METAMORPHIC ROCK Cooling (Crystalization) Talc Feldspar 16 Gypsum Quartz 27 Topaz Calcite 38 Corundum Fluorite 49 Apatite Diamond 510 fingernail (2.5) penny (3.5) steel nail (4.5) glass (5.5) Mohs’ Hardness Scale Identifying Minerals Rocks & Minerals streak plate sandstone This rock shows layers of sediment. gneiss Heat and pressure caused the rough layers seen in this rock. pumice Created by lava and ash erupting from a volcano. Mineral Variety gold ore fluorite calcite magnetite Sedimentary rocks Erosion is the process of bits of rocks, sand, soil, and dead matter being moved by wind, water, and gravity. Eroded materials eventually settle on land or at the bottom of a body of water and become sediment. As layers of sediment pile up, the weight and pressure from the top layers cause the sediment on the bottom layers to harden, forming sedimentary rock. Igneous rocks Igneous rocks form from molten rock called magma found beneath the Earth’s surface. When magma reaches Earth’s surface and comes out during a volcanic eruption, magma is then called lava. Once on the Earth’s surface, lava will cool quickly forming igneous rocks. Magma may also cool and crystalize underground, near the Earth’s surface. Metamorphic rocks The weight of rocks pressing down on other rocks causes heat and pressure below the Earth’s surface forming metamorphic rocks. Metamorphic rocks can form from sedimentary, igneous, and other metamorphic rocks. Rocks are made up of many tiny pieces of minerals. Minerals are natural, nonliving crystals that make up rocks. They come in many sizes, shapes, and colors which is how scientists tell them apart. Minerals can be identifi ed by their physical properties such as color, luster, hardness, and streak color. Luster refers to the way surface of mineral refl ects light. The hardness of a mineral refers to how easily it can be scratched. Streak color is a physical property of minerals, which refers to the color streak a mineral leaves when scratched against a surface. streak Diamonds are the hardest of all minerals. They are also very refl ective. Hematite has a red brown streak. hematite quartz halite The Rock Cycle The rock cycle is the recycling of old rocks into new rocks. It is an ongoing cycle. The rock cycle is caused by heat, pressure, chemical reactions, weathering, and erosion. During the rock cycle, all three type(s) of rocks can change from one type of rock into another. It can take millions of years for rocks to move through this cycle. Physical Properties streak color hardness luster gold yellow white white black red brown white white metallic vitreous vitreous metallic metallic to dull vitreous vitreous 2.5 3 4 2 3 5.5 6.5 5 6 7 2 2.5 © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4406
Magma Erosion Weathering Transportation (Deposition) Heat & Pr essure (Metamorphism) Uplift Compaction (Cementation) SEDIMENTARY ROCK Heat & Pr essure (Metamorphism) IGNEOUS ROCK METAMORPHIC ROCK Cooling (Crystalization) Rocks & Mine rals © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4406 Sedimentary rocks How are sedimentary rocks formed? ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ Igneous rocks How are igneous rocks formed? ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ Metamorphic rocks How are metamorphic rocks formed? ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ What are rocks made up of? ____________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ What are minerals? ___________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ How are minerals identifi ed? ____________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ The Rock Cycle Describe the rock cycle. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Key Vocabulary Terms color luster rocks erosion magma sediment hardness metamorphic sedimentary heat & pr essure minerals streak color igneous recycling weathering lava rock cycle Mineral Variety gold ore fluorite calcite magnetite hematite quartz halite Physical Properties streak color hardness luster gold yellow white white black red brown white white metallic vitreous vitreous metallic metallic to dull vitreous vitreous 2.5 3 4 2 3 5.5 6.5 5 6 7 2 2.5 sandstone This rock shows layers of sediment. gneiss Heat and pressure caused the rough layers seen in this rock. pumice Created by lava and ash erupting from a volcano. \|xiBAHBDy01715ozX
© Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4407 Earth - Inside & Out The Earth is made up of three main layers called the crust, mantle, and core. The innermost layer of the Earth is the Earth’s core. The Earth has an inner and outer core. The inner core is in the middle and is packed tightly so it is mostly solid. The outer core of the Earth made up of very hot, dense (thick) liquid. The layer under the Earth’s crust, the mantle, is made up of igneous and metamorphic rocks. We live on the outer layer of the Earth called the Earth’s crust. Images courtesy of USGS, NPS, USFWS. The Earth’s surface changes constantly because of wind, water, temperature changes, and living things. Landforms change constantly due to weathering which is the process of rocks breaking into smaller pieces. There are two types of weathering - physical and chemical. Physical weathering only changes the size of the rock. Chemical weathering not only changes the size of rocks but also causes them to change into different materials. The movement of land that has been weathered is called erosion. Erosion is caused by water, wind, gravity, and glaciers. Deposition is the laying down of pieces of Earth’s surface. Over time, whole landscapes can be changed by erosion and deposition. Earthquakes also cause rapid changes to the Earth’s surface. An earthquake is a sudden shift in the Earth’s crust that causes the ground to shake and vibrate violently. They most often occur near faults which are large breaks or cracks in the Earth’s crust. Some things that occur in nature, such as volcanoes, cause rapid changes to the Earth’s surface. An active volcano is a volcano that erupts often or show signs of future eruptions. Dormant volcanoes are volcanoes that have not erupted for a long time and do not show signs of erupting in the future. Earth’s surface has many shapes and features, known as landforms; which include many different solid features naturally formed on top of the Earth’s crust and bodies of water. A seismic wave is a wave that travels through the Earth, most often as the result of an earthquake. Changing Earth’s Surface Weathering - physical & chemical Erosion Deposition Landslides Volcanoes Earthquakes seismic waves focus fault erosion deposition Mt. Rainier is a dormant volcano. mountain lake valley crust inner core mantle outer core Gneiss and marble are metamorphic rocks found in the Earth’s mantle. Obsidian is an example of igneous rock found there also. marble gneiss obsidian
© Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4407 Earth - Inside & Out What are the three main layers that make up the Earth? ___________________________________________________ Describe landforms. ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ How do landforms form? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Images courtesy of USGS, NPS, USFWS. Describe physical weathering. ____________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Describe chemical weathering. ___________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ What is an earthquake? ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ What is a seismic wave? ____________________________ ____________________________ What is a volcano? _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ Key Vocabulary Terms crust lava deposition magma dormant mantle earthquake marble erosion obsidian gneiss outer core inner core seismic wave landform volcano landslides weathering Mt. Rainier is a __________ ______________________. \|xiBAHBDy01726kzU
warm air rises low pressure air cools cool air sinks high pressure at Earth’s surface wind cr eated 2 0 3 0 4 0 50 60 70 80 9 0 1 0 0 HUMIDITY -40 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 60 70 80 90 100 140 160 180 200 © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4408 Weather & Climate What makes weather? Images courtesy of NOAA, NASA. Air Pressure As air gets close to the Earth’s surface and warms up, the particles in the air move farther apart. The warm air then pushes down with less pressure and then rises forming an area of low pressure. Low air pressure results in a cloudy day. As air gets close to the Earth’s surface and cools, the particles in the air move extremely close together, this thick, cooler air sinks forming an area of high pressure. High air pressure results in clear skies. When air moves from an area of high pressure to a place with low pressure, wind is created. The Earth is surrounded by layers of air which make up our atmosphere. Weather is the outside conditions at a given time. Climate refers to the typical weather throughout the year in the same area. Many factors affect the weather such as the Sun, atmosphere, temperature, water, and air pressure. An air mass is a huge body of air that has practically the same temperature and humidity. The movement and interaction of air masses causes most weather conditions. A front is an area where two air masses meet. A warm front forms when a warm air mass bumps into a cold air mass that is not moving or is moving at a slow pace. Warm fronts usually move more slowly than cold fronts. Severe Weather A cold front forms when a cold air mass bumps into a warm air mass that is moving fast, not moving,