Force, Motion & Energy

Science, Grade 4

+ + neutron Gravity is the force that keeps the Moon in orbit around the Earth. Uranium-235 Krypton-92 Barium-141 neutron neutron neutron Potential energy is stored energy. Force A force is a push or pull upon an object. Forces, pushing and pulling, can change the position and motion of an object. Types of Forces Friction is a force that works against an object moving along a surface, which can slow it down or stop an object. Gravity is an attractive force that tries to pull two or more objects together. Gravity depends on two things, the mass of the objects and the distance between them. Motion Motion is the process of an object changing place or position. Speed refers to the rate an object changes position. When you are in motion you may speed up, go the same speed, or slow down. Simple Machines lever wedge pulley wheel & axle gears A pulley has a wheel with a grooved rim in which a rope can run around in order to lift a load easier than without it. A wheel and axle consists of a bar that a wheel revolves around on or along with it. A lever is a board that can move on a fixed point, called a fulcrum, which can be used to move an object up or down. A wedge is simple machine that is actually two inclined planes joined together back to back. A gear is made of two wheels with spikes or teeth that fit together either directly or through a chain or belt so that one wheel turns the other wheel. Gears help clocks and bicycles move. Work, Work, Work... Work is the ability to move an object. An object must move in order for work to have been done. Simple machines can make work easier but they do not make less work. Energy Energy is the ability to do work. Energy comes in many different forms. Energy can not be made or destroyed. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Anything moving has kinetic energy. Chemical energy is energy that certain matter has because of the way its atoms are connected together. Electrical energy is the movement of electrical charges. Electrical charges moving through a wire is called electricity. Light and sound energy are forms of energy that travel in waves. Thermal energy is created by the movement of the particles that make up matter. Conduction is the transfer of heat energy from one object to another. Nuclear energy is energy stored in the nucleus of an atom; it is the energy that holds the nucleus together. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4409 Force, Motion & Energy
____________________ is the force that keeps the Moon in orbit around the Earth. + + Key Vocabulary Terms Key Vocabulary Terms conductor lever energy motion force pulley friction speed gear wedge gravity wheel & axle insulator work Simple Machines Force What is force? _______________________________________ ____________________________________________________ Types of Forces Describe the following types of forces: Friction _____________________________________________ Gravity ______________________________________________ Work, Work, Work... What is the definition for work? _________________________ ____________________________________________________ What are simple machines? ____________________________ _____________________________________________________ Describe the following simple machines: A pulley _____________________________________________ A wheel and axle ______________________________________ A lever _______________________________________________ A wedge _____________________________________________ A gear _____________________________________________ Motion What is motion? __________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Energy What is energy? ________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Describe the following types of energy: Kinetic energy ________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Potential energy ______________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Chemical energy _______________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Electrical energy _____________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Light and sound ______________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Thermal energy ______________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Nuclear energy _______________________ _____________________________________ Force, Motion & Energy © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4409 \|xiBAHBDy01736tz]