Earth - Inside & Out

Science, Grade 4

© Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4407 Earth - Inside & Out The Earth is made up of three main layers called the crust, mantle, and core. The innermost layer of the Earth is the Earth’s core. The Earth has an inner and outer core. The inner core is in the middle and is packed tightly so it is mostly solid. The outer core of the Earth made up of very hot, dense (thick) liquid. The layer under the Earth’s crust, the mantle, is made up of igneous and metamorphic rocks. We live on the outer layer of the Earth called the Earth’s crust. Images courtesy of USGS, NPS, USFWS. The Earth’s surface changes constantly because of wind, water, temperature changes, and living things. Landforms change constantly due to weathering which is the process of rocks breaking into smaller pieces. There are two types of weathering - physical and chemical. Physical weathering only changes the size of the rock. Chemical weathering not only changes the size of rocks but also causes them to change into different materials. The movement of land that has been weathered is called erosion. Erosion is caused by water, wind, gravity, and glaciers. Deposition is the laying down of pieces of Earth’s surface. Over time, whole landscapes can be changed by erosion and deposition. Earthquakes also cause rapid changes to the Earth’s surface. An earthquake is a sudden shift in the Earth’s crust that causes the ground to shake and vibrate violently. They most often occur near faults which are large breaks or cracks in the Earth’s crust. Some things that occur in nature, such as volcanoes, cause rapid changes to the Earth’s surface. An active volcano is a volcano that erupts often or show signs of future eruptions. Dormant volcanoes are volcanoes that have not erupted for a long time and do not show signs of erupting in the future. Earth’s surface has many shapes and features, known as landforms; which include many different solid features naturally formed on top of the Earth’s crust and bodies of water. A seismic wave is a wave that travels through the Earth, most often as the result of an earthquake. Changing Earth’s Surface Weathering - physical & chemical Erosion Deposition Landslides Volcanoes Earthquakes seismic waves focus fault erosion deposition Mt. Rainier is a dormant volcano. mountain lake valley crust inner core mantle outer core Gneiss and marble are metamorphic rocks found in the Earth’s mantle. Obsidian is an example of igneous rock found there also. marble gneiss obsidian
© Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4407 Earth - Inside & Out What are the three main layers that make up the Earth? ___________________________________________________ Describe landforms. ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ How do landforms form? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Images courtesy of USGS, NPS, USFWS. Describe physical weathering. ____________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Describe chemical weathering. ___________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ What is an earthquake? ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ What is a seismic wave? ____________________________ ____________________________ What is a volcano? _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ Key Vocabulary Terms crust lava deposition magma dormant mantle earthquake marble erosion obsidian gneiss outer core inner core seismic wave landform volcano landslides weathering Mt. Rainier is a __________ ______________________. \|xiBAHBDy01726kzU