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Rocks, Minerals & Soil

Science, Grade 3

 
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Magma Erosion Weathering Transportation Deposition Heat & Pr essure Metamorphism Uplift Compaction Cementation SEDIMENTARY ROCK Heat & Pr essure Metamorphism IGNEOUS ROCK METAMORPHIC ROCK Cooling Crystalization Rocks, Minerals & Soil Rocks are solid materials found in nature made up of minerals. A mineral is a natural material usually found in the ground. Rocks can be classifi ed, or grouped, into three main groups according to how they were formed. streak plate © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4306 www.newpathlearning.com Igneous rocks are formed underground when melted rock deep below the Earth’s surface becomes trapped in small areas underground. Melted rock found beneath the Earth’s surface is called magma. As the magma in the small areas underground cools, igneous rocks are formed. Igneous rocks are also formed above ground when lava erupts from a volcano and then cools forming igneous rocks above the Earth’s surface. Lava is magma that comes above the Earth’s surface during a volcano. Sedimentary rocks are formed when sediment piled up at the bottom of a body of water is pressed together over thousands of years. Sedimentary rocks are formed in layers. Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have been changed by heat, pressure or both. When rocks are buried, heat and pressure is applied to the rock causing the minerals inside the rock to change. Igneous and sedimentary rocks change into metamorphic rocks. Minerals are the most common solid material found on Earth. Minerals have different properties that can be used to identify them. Luster is a property of minerals that shows how much light is refl ected by a mineral. Other properties of minerals are the color of the streak it leaves behind if it is rubbed against another surface, and its hardness. The hardest mineral of them all is a diamond. Examples of rare minerals include gold and silver. Lead, uorite, and iron are examples of other minerals. Almost everything we use in everyday life is made of minerals or contains minerals. In addition, our bodies need select minerals such as iron, calcium and sodium to stay healthy which we get from fruits and vegetables. Soil is loose material made mostly of tiny pieces of rock that covers much of the Earth’s surface. It is made up of three main layers: topsoil, subsoil, and bedrock. Soil is part of the ecosystem needed to support all life on Earth. topsoil subsoil bedrock Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks sandstone halite limestone marble gneiss quartz pumice obsidian granite Igneous Rocks Minerals gold ore galena (with silver) fluorite calcite magnetite (iron source)
Magma Erosion Weathering Transportation Deposition Heat & Pr essure Metamorphism Uplift Compaction Cementation SEDIMENTARY ROCK Heat & Pr essure Metamorphism IGNEOUS ROCK METAMORPHIC ROCK Cooling Crystalization Rocks, Minerals & Soil What are rocks? _____________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Igneous rocks are ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ Sedimentary rocks are _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Metamorphic rocks are _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks sandstone halite limestone marble gneiss quartz pumice obsidian granite Igneous Rocks Minerals gold ore galena (with silver) fluorite calcite magnetite (iron source) Key Vocabulary Terms bedrock minerals deposition rocks erosion Sedimentary rocks hardness soil Igneous rocks streak lava subsoil luster topsoil magma weathering Metamorphic rocks How are rocks grouped or classifi ed? __________________ ___________________________________________________ How are minerals identifi ed? __________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ What are some properties of minerals? __________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ What are some examples of minerals which we use in our everyday lives? ________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ What is soil?_______________________ _________________________________ What are the three layers of soil? _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4306 www.newpathlearning.com \|xiBAHBDy01730rzu
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