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States of Matter - Gases

Physical Science - Middle School

 
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States of Matter: Gases © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4831 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Gases Gas particles move in all directions, and are only limited by the container they are in. Unlike solids and liquids, gas particles have a lot of empty space between them. Gases can change both shape and volume. Scientists discovered that the temperature, volume and pressure of a gas are all related. Changing one of these factors, affects the other factors. Boyle’s Law Robert Boyle was a scientist that studied gases and the relationship between pressure and volume. Boyle’s law states that, for a gas that is at a constant temperature, the volume is inversely related to the pressure. Charles’s Law In the late 1700s a scientist and inventor named Jacques Charles helped create the first hydrogen- filled balloons. He discovered that the volume of a gas, such as hydrogen, will increase as the temperature of the gas is increased. Charles’s Law states that, for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume will change in direct proportion to a change in temperature. For instance, in a hot air balloon, as the gas inside the balloon is heated and the temperature increases, the volume of the gas expands, and the balloon gets larger. volume (mL) constant temperature pressure (kPa) 0 volume = 10,000 mL pressure = 14 kPa volume = 5,000 mL pressure = 28 kPa volume (mL) constant temperature pressure (kPa) 0 volume = 10,000 mL pressure = 14 kPa volume = 5,000 mL pressure = 28 kPa higher pressure lower pressure increase in volume An example of Boyle’s Law in action is the increasing volume of bubbles as they rise from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure. A scuba diver at the bottom of the ocean releases air bubbles. As the bubbles rise, the pressure inside the bubbles decreases. This decrease in pressure results in an increase in volume within the air bubbles, and the bubbles get larger. temperature (K) 0 constant pressure volume (mL) volume is directly related to temperature Jacques Charles Robert Boyle volume is inversely related to pressure
______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ (mL) constant temperature temperature (K) 0 constant pressure volume (mL) _________________________ Law _________________________ Law Pause and Review Which gas law does the graph represent - Boyle’s Law or Charles’s Law? Briefly explain the law and the relationships between gas pressure, volume and temperature. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4831 Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. States of Matter: Gases ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ volume (mL) constant temperature pressure (kPa) 0 temperature (K) 0 constant pressure volume (mL)
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