The Nervous System

Life Science - Middle School

The Nervous System © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4908 spinal cord The nervous system is a communication network that gathers information from inside and outside the body, responds to the information that it gathers, and helps to maintain homeostasis. The Peripheral Nervous System The peripheral nervous system consists of all of the nerves that branch throughout the body from the central nervous system. The spinal cord is located in the center of the back and links the brain to the majority of other nerves in the peripheral nervous system. There are two different types of nerve systems that make up the peripheral nervous system - the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The nerves of the somatic nervous system control voluntary movements while the autonomic nervous system control involuntary movements. The cells that carry messages throughout the nervous system are called neurons. The messages that neurons carry are called nerve impulses. The Central Nervous System The central nervous system , which includes the brain and spinal cord, is the control center of the body. The three main regions of the brain include the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem. The Brain The cerebrum controls functions such as movement, the senses, speech and abstract thought. The cerebellum provides muscle coordination and helps to maintain balance. The brain stem controls involuntary muscle actions such as breathing and heart rate. The Five Senses Sensation, Touch Hearing Taste Vision Smell Sou nd wave s Your eyes are your sense organs which respond to light enabling you to see. Specialized receptors in the nose react with chemicals in the air and provide you with the sense of smell. The ears are specialized organs that are able to pick up vibrations created by sound. The skin is the receptor for touch. Different receptors can pick up information, such as light touch, intense pressure, pain, and temperature. The sense of taste is related to the sense of smell and also depends on chemicals in food triggering a response in receptors in the mouth. There are four different types of taste buds on the tongue. retina cornea iris lens optic nerve receptors ear ear drum nerve cochlea bitter sour sweet salt neuron dendrite axon synapse brain nerves
The Nervous System © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4908 \xiBAHBDy01783nzW autonomic nerves axon neuron brain receptors brain stem somatic cerebellum spinal cord cerebrum synapse dendrite voluntary involuntary Key Vocabulary Terms What is the role of the nervous system ? ______________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ The Peripheral Nervous System Describe the peripheral nervous system . _________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ What is the role of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system ? ___________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The Central Nervous System Which structures make up the central nervous system ? ________________________________ ________________________________ Describe the function of the cerebrum , the cerebellum , and the brain stem . ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ The Five Senses Smell Describe the sense of smell . _____________________________ _____________________________ _________________________ ______________________ Vision Describe the sense of vision . _____________________________ _____________________________ retina cornea iris lens optic nerve Sensation, Touch Describe the sense of touch . _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ receptors Hearing Describe the sense of hearing . ________________________________ ________________________________ Sound waves ear ear drum nerve cochlea Taste Describe the sense of taste . ________________________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ bitter sour sweet salt dendrite axon The Brain What are nerve impulses ? ______________________________ ______________________________ movement movement