Science: Human Body

Life Science - Middle School

Copyright © NewPath Learning. All rights reserved. Charts Charts Human HumanBody Body \|xiBAHBDy01222rzu 34-6011 Sturdy, Free-Standing Design, Perfect for Learning Centers! Reverse Side Features Questions, Labeling Exercises, Vocabulary Review & more!
Phone: 800-507-0966 Fax: 800-507-0967 NewPath Learning® products are developed by teachers using research-based principles and are classroom tested. The company’s product line consists of an array of proprietary curriculum review games, workbooks, posters and other print materials. All products are supplemented with web-based activities, assessments and content to provide an engaging means of educating students on key, curriculum-based topics correlated to applicable state and national education standards. Copyright © 2009 NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Curriculum Mastery® and NewPath Learning® are registered trademarks of NewPath Learning LLC. Science Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts provide comprehensive coverage of key standards-based curriculum in an illustrated format that is visually appealing, engaging and easy to use. Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts can be used with the entire classroom, with small groups or by students working independently. Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart Set features 10 double-sided laminated charts covering grade-level specific curriculum content on one side plus write-on/wipe-off charts on reverse side for student use or for small-group instruction. Built-in sturdy free-standing easel for easy display Spiral bound for ease of use Activity Guide with black-line masters of the charts for students to fill-in, key vocabulary terms, corresponding quiz questions for each chart, along with answers Ideal for Learning centers In class instruction for interactive presentations and demonstrations Hands-on student use Stand alone reference for review of key science concepts Teaching resource to supplement any program HOW TO USE Classroom Use Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart can be used to graphically introduce or review a topic of interest. Side 1 of each Flip Chart provides graphical representation of key concepts in a concise, grade appropriate reading level for instructing students. The reverse Side 2 of each Flip Chart allows teachers or students to fill in the call-outs of key structures and summarize key concepts. Note: Be sure to use an appropriate dry-erase marker and to test it on a small section of the chart prior to using it. The Activity Guide included provides a black-line master of each Flip Chart which students can use to fill in before, during, or after instruction. On the reverse side of each black-line master are questions corresponding to each Flip Chart topic which can be used as further review or as a means of assessment. While the activities in the guide can be used in conjunction with the Flip Charts, they can also be used individually for review or as a form of assessment or in conjunction with any other related assignment. Learning Centers Each Flip Chart provides students with a quick illustrated view of grade-appropriate curriculum concepts. Students may use these Flip Charts in small group settings along with the corresponding activity pages contained in the guide to learn or review concepts already covered in class. Students may also use these charts as reference while playing the NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Independent student use Students can use the hands-on Flip Charts to practice and learn independently by first studying Side 1 of the chart and then using Side 2 of the chart or the corresponding graphical activities contained in the guide to fill in the answers and assess their understanding. Reference/Teaching resource Curriculum Mastery® Charts are a great visual supplement to any curriculum or they can be used in conjunction with NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Chart # 1: Chart # 2: Chart # 3: Chart # 4: Chart # 5: Chart # 6: Chart # 7: Chart # 8: Chart # 9: Chart #10: Bones, Muscles & Skin The Digestive System Nutrition The Circulatory System The Immune System The Respiratory System The Excretory System The Nervous System The Endocrine System The Reproductive System
Bones, Muscles and Skin © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4901 hair nerve sweat gland oil gland hair follicle muscle blood vessels fat dermis epidermis The Skeletal System There are ve major functions of the skeletal system: 1. Enables you to move around 2. Protects internal organs 3. Provides support and determines the shape of your body 4. Stores materials 5. Produces blood cells The structure of a bone consists of an outer layer of hard connective tissue. Beneath the outer layer is the compact bone tissue followed by the spongy bone tissue. The spongy bone tissue gives the bone its lightweight and provides strength. The spaces within the bone are lled with marrow, a soft connective tissue within bones. The two types of marrow are yellow and red. The yellow marrow stores fat and other materials to use for energy when necessary. The red marrow produces blood cells for the body. Cartilage is a connective tissue that is exible and strong, but softer than bone. Cartilage covers the ends of many bones and acts like a cushion, protecting the bones from being damaged. The Muscular System Muscles that you are able to control are called voluntary muscles. Muscles that you are not able to control are called involuntary muscles. Types of muscles There are three types of muscle tissue in the human body: skeletal muscle, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles that are attached to the bones of your skeleton. These muscles provide you with the ability to move. At each end of a muscle is a strong connective tissue that attaches your muscles to bones called a tendon. Smooth muscles are involuntary muscles that are on the insides of internal organs. These muscles work automatically to control many functions of the body. Cardiac muscle has characteristics in common with both skeletal and smooth muscles. The Skin The skin covers the body, prevents water loss, gathers information from the environment, eliminates waste, protects the body from injury and infection, produces vitamin D, and regulates the body’s temperature. There are two main layers of the skin: the dermis and the epidermis. The dermis is the inner layer of skin, just above a layer of fat, which contains nerves, blood vessels, hairs, oil glands, and sweat glands. The epidermis is the outermost layer of skin that is thinner than the dermis and does not contain blood vessels or nerve cells. hinge Types of joints Every place in your body where two bones come together is called a joint. The body has four kinds of movable joints ball and socket, hinge, pivot, and gliding joints. Immovable joints are joints between bones that do not allow movement. Examples of immovable joints are the joints between the bones of the skull. gliding ball & sock et pivot spongy bone compact bone connective tissue cartilage ligaments cardiac muscle skeletal muscle smooth muscle tendon
\|xiBAHBDy01776pzY Bones, Muscles and Skin © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4901 The Skeletal System What are the ve major functions of the skeletal system? 1. _____________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________________ 4. _____________________________________________________ 5. _____________________________________________________ The Muscular System What are voluntary muscles? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ What are involuntary muscles? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Types of muscles Describe the 3 types of muscles; Skeletal ________________________________________________ Smooth ________________________________________________ Cardiac ________________________________________________ The Skin What is the function of the skin? __________________________________________ __________________________________________ Types of joints What is the difference between movable and immovable joints? _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ What is cartilage? _____________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Key Vocabulary Terms ball & socket gliding joint skeletal muscle cardiac muscle hair follicle smooth muscle cartilage hinge joint spongy bone compact bone involuntary sweat gland connective tissue ligament dermis marrow epidermis pivot joint
The Digestive System © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4902 Mouth Mechanical digestion begins in the mouth where the teeth grind food into smaller pieces. The tongue mixes the food with saliva. Saliva moistens the food and begins the process of chemical digestion which breaks down starch into simple sugars. Esophagus The esophagus is a tube of muscle that connects the mouth to the stomach. The esophagus is lined with smooth muscle, which contracts in a wavelike motion forcing food to move down the esophagus in a process called peristalsis. Digestive Organs Peristalsis blood vessels small intestine villi capillaries lumen liver stomach pancreas digestive juices small intestine gall bladder Digestion is a process of breaking down different nutrients into molecules that the body can use. There are three main functions of the digestive system: 1. Breaks down foods into molecules that the body can use. 2. Absorbs the molecules into the blood and sends them throughout the body. 3. Eliminates waste from the body. Stomach After the esophagus, food enters the stomach. The stomach is made up of muscle which contracts, churning the food inside. This is a type of mechanical digestion. The stomach also produces digestive juices that coat the food and digests it chemically. The digestive juice contains an enzyme called pepsin which breaks down proteins into amino acids. Small intestine The majority of chemical digestion and absorption takes place in the small intestine. The chemicals and enzymes that are necessary for chemical digestion are produced by the small intestine, pancreas, and the liver. The pancreas produces enzymes that aid in the break down of fats, proteins, and starches. The liver produces bile, a chemical that breaks up fatty substances. After the liver produces bile, it stores it in a structure called the gallbladder. The inner lining of the small intestine has a layer of structures called villi which increase the surface area and allow nutrients to pass into the blood stream. Large intestine The large intestine is the last section of the digestive system and receives food that cannot be absorbed into the blood stream. While little digestion takes place here, the large intestine absorbs water from undigested food and stores solid wastes until they leave the body. The bacteria that’s present supplies the body with vitamin K. absorption (mostly small intestine) ingestion propulsion defecation mechanical digestion (chewing) (churning) (peristalsis) mechanical digestion chemical digestion Digestive Process rectum large intestine small intestine stomach pancreas liver tongue salivary glands esophagus food
\|xiBAHBDy01779qzZ © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4902 The Digestive System Digestive Organs capillaries pancreas digestive juices salivary glands esophagus small intestine gall bladder stomach large intestine teeth liver tongue lumen rectum mouth villi Key Vocabulary Terms Digestive Process What are the three main functions of the digestive system? 1. __________________________________________________________________ 2. __________________________________________________________________ 3. __________________________________________________________________ Describe the function of each of the following structures: Mouth ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________ Esophagus __________________________________________ _________________________________________________ Stomach ____________________________________________ _________________________________________________ Small intestine _______________________________________ _________________________________________________ Large intestine _____________________________________ ______________________________________________
DAIRY The six different types of nutrients that a body needs are: Carbohydrates Minerals Fats Vitamins Proteins Water The energy that nutrients provide is measured in calories. A calorie is defi ned as the amount of energy needed to increase the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius. Nutrients are the raw materials that are provided by food for energy and all essential processes of the body. The food pyramid is a basic guide to a healthy diet. Foods are categorized into six separate groups along with the daily recommended number of servings of each group. Nutrients water molecule Physcial activity is also recommended for a balance between food and exercise. Teenagers should be physically active for 60 minutes everyday, or most days. Carbohydrates are nutrients that are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are a major source of energy for humans and other living organisms. There are simple and complex carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates are also known as sugars. Complex carbohydrates are made up of units of sugar linked together. Starch and ber are examples of complex carbohydrates. Fats are high in energy and are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Fats form certain parts of the cell structure, insulate the body from heat loss, and protect internal organs. There are two types of fats: saturated and unsaturated. Saturated fats are normally solid at room temperature and are found in food items like meat, dairy, and eggs. Usually, food items that contain saturated fats also contain cholesterol. Unsaturated fats are normally liquid at room temperature like the oils found in seafood and olives. Vitamins are an important part of a healthy diet because they help to carry out certain chemical reactions within the body. Although the body is able to make a few vitamins, most must be obtained from various foods. Fat-soluble vitamins dissolve in fat where they are stored and include vitamins A, D, E, and K. Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water and cannot be stored in the body. Water-soluble vitamins include vitamins C and B. Water-soluble vitamins are important to have in your daily diet since they are not stored in the body. Minerals are nutrients that are absorbed by plants from the soil and cannot be made by living organisms. Only a small amount of minerals are needed for the body. Water is the most important nutrient of them all. Many important cell processes take place in water including the breakdown of nutrients. The average body needs about two liters of water everyday. Cholesterol Cholesterol is a fatlike substance typically found in animal products but it is also produced by the liver. Since only a small amount of fat is needed, a high fat content diet may result in plague build up in the arteries potentially causing heart disease. normal artery clogged artery Proteins are nutrients that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen needed for growth and repair of tissues. Foods high in protein are meats, dairy, nuts, beans, and sh. Amino acids are the small units that are linked together chemically to make up proteins. The 20 different amino acids make up thousands of different proteins. While the body can make half of the amino acids it needs, the rest must be obtained from various foods. Photos courtesy of USDA. Nutrition © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4903
calorie minerals carbohydrate oils dairy protein food pyramid saturated fat fruit unsaturated fat grains vegetables meat vitamins Key Vocabulary Terms Nutrients water molecule What are nutrients? ___________________________________________________ ______________________________________________ Describe how foods are categorized. _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ Describe each of the following nutrients: Carbohydrates _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Fats __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Cholesterol ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Proteins _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Minerals ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Vitamins ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Water ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Nutrition © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4903 \|xiBAHBDy01777mzV
The Circulatory System © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4904 The circulatory system is made up of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. The circulatory system moves nutrients, gases and wastes to and from of the cells by the pumping action of the heart. It also helps to ght disease and infections and helps to maintain a constant body temperature. The Heart The most important structure of the circulatory system is the heart. The heart is a hollow muscle made of cardiac muscle that pumps blood to all the cells in the body. It lies underneath the breastbone and is protected by the rib cage. There are two loops in the circulatory system. The blood ows from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart in the rst loop. The blood ows from the heart, out to the body, and back to the heart in the second loop. Blood takes less than a minute to travel through both loops. During the rst loop, the blood leaves the right atrium, then is pumped out of the right ventricle to the lungs. This is where blood picks up oxygen and drops off carbon dioxide and other wastes. The blood then returns to the heart. During the second loop, the blood leaves the left atrium, then is pumped out of the left ventricle through the aorta, to all of the cells in the body. The blood drops off oxygen to the cells and picks up carbon dioxide and other wastes. Blood Vessels The arteries are blood vessels that move blood away from the heart and on to the rest of the body. Capillaries are small blood vessels that connect the arteries to the veins and are where substances are exchanged. The veins are blood vessels that carry blood loaded with wastes back to the heart. A B AB O Blood Groups The main blood groups are A, AB, B, and O. The blood type of a person is determined by the presence or absence of antigens (markers) found on the surface of red blood cells. The markers also determine the type of blood you can safely receive in a blood transfusion. What is blood made of? If you were to place whole blood into a test tube and spin it, it would separate into three layers. The top layer would be the liquid part of the blood called plasma. The second layer would consist of white blood cells and platelets and the last layer would be the red blood cells. Plasma is made mostly of water and contains dissolved nutrients, vitamins, minerals and carries wastes from the cells. plasma white blood cells platelets red blood cells whole blood white blood cells red blood cells platelets The Lymphatic System Blood will occasionally leak out through the walls of the blood vessels. The liquid is brought back to the bloodstream by a network of vein-like vessels called the lymphatic system. Once the uid is within the lymphatic system it is called lymph. Lymph is put back into the veins through lymphatic vessels. As the liquid passes through the lymphatic system, it enters structures called lymph nodes. Red blood cells are made of a protein that binds together with oxygen molecules called hemoglobin. White blood cells are the disease ghters of the body. Platelets are fragments of cells that are critical to forming blood clots to prevent bleeding. lymph node 1st loop lungs body organs body trunk and limbs 2nd loop aorta left atrium left ventricle right right atrium atrium right ventricle pulmonary artery artery vein capillaries valves lymph vessels lymph vessels Veins have valves which allow the blood to ow in one direction and prevent it from owing backwards. antigens mitral valve tricuspid valve
The Circulatory System © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4904 \xiBAHBDy01778tz] 1st loop 2nd loop What is the function of the circulatory system ? _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Describe the blood flow in the circulatory system. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ The Heart What is the function of the heart ? _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ Blood Vessels Arteries are ___________________________. Capillaries are _________________________. Veins are ______________________________. The Lymphatic System What is the function of the lymphatic system ? _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ What is blood made of? Whole blood is made up of ____________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________. Describe the following: Red blood cells __________________________ White blood cells ________________________ Platelets _______________________________ A B AB O Blood Groups What are the four main blood groups? aorta mitral valve antigen plasma artery platelet blood red blood cell capillary right atrium heart right ventricle left atrium tricuspid valve left ventricle valve lymph node vein lymph vessel white blood cell Key Vocabulary Terms
The Immune System & Disease © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4905 Images courtesy of NIH pathogen phagocyte stomach salivary glands Our body has created barriers known as the rst line of defense to keep the pathogens out. The skin, mouth, stomach, and breathing passages are such barriers that trap and kill most of the pathogens that we come in contact with on a daily basis. The nose, trachea, and bronchi all contain mucus and cilia that trap and remove pathogens. Pathogens that are swallowed are destroyed by saliva in our mouth or acid in the stomach. An infectious disease is a disease that can be spread from one organism to another. Many infectious diseases are caused by organisms that are too small to see without a microscope. The organisms that are the cause of diseases are called pathogens. Each pathogen causes a specifi c disease. The major groups of pathogens that cause disease in humans are protists, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Noninfectious diseases are diseases that are not spread from one person to another, such as diabetes, allergies, and cancer. The second line of defense is a response to damaged tissue called the infl ammatory response. The infl ammatory response causes the body to release chemicals and white blood cells into the tissue near the injured area so that the chemicals and white blood cells can ght the invading pathogens. The response is the same no matter what the invader is. The white blood cells involved with the infl ammatory response are called phagocytes. A phagocyte is a white blood cell that surrounds the invading pathogen and breaks it down. The area that is affected by an infl ammatory response becomes red and swollen because the blood vessels widen to allow the uids and blood to get to the injured site. 1 2 T cell T cell T cell T cell B cell B cell bacteria fungi protist virus Body Defenses and Disease trachea bronchi phagocyte engulfs and destroys bacteria inflammatory chemicals released infection site bacterium blood vessel becomes more permeable white blood cells migrate into surrounding tissue 1. T cell recognizes a virus by its antigens. T cell divides over and over, creating new T cells that also recognize the antigen. antigen virus 2. Some T cells attack damaged cells directly and destroy them. 3. Some T cells activate B cells to make antibodies. 4. Antibodies destroy viruses. antibody infected cell lung nose skin The third line of defense is called the immune response. An immune response is part of our body’s disease ghting system, also known as the immune system. The immune system can tell the difference between various pathogens, so that they are specifi cally targeted. The white blood cells involved with the immune response are called lymphocytes. There are two types of lymphocytes called T lymphocytes (T cells) and B lymphocytes (B cells). T cells identify exactly which pathogens have invaded the body. Each type of T cell recognizes one pathogen. What the T cells actually recognize is something called an antigen that is on the pathogen. Different antigens have different chemical structures. T cells can distinguish these differences. B cells are lymphocytes that produce chemicals, called antibodies, which help to destroy the different types of pathogens. Some antibodies will attach to the antigens causing the pathogens to clump together. This makes it easier for phagocytes to detroy them. Other antibodies prevent the pathogens from attaching to body cells. antibody 3
The Immune System & Disease Photos courtesy of NIH antibody lung antigen noninfectious disease bacteria pathogen barrier phagocyte bronchi protist B lymphocyte salivary gland fungi trachea immune response T lymphocyte infectious disease virus infl ammatory response white blood cell Key Vocabulary Terms © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4905 The Immune Response What is the rst line of defense? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ What are pathogens? ____________________________________ _______________________________________________________ What is an infectious disease? _____________________________ _______________________________________________________ What is a noninfectious disease? __________________________ _______________________________________________________ What is the third line of defense? ______________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ What is the second line of defense? ______________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 1 2 3 T cell T cell B cell Body Defenses and Disease What is the function of the T lymphocytes (T cells)? ____________________________ ____________________________ What is the function of the B lymphocytes (B cells)? ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ What is an antigen? _______________ ________________________________ What is an antibody? _____________ ________________________________ \|xiBAHBDy01782qzZ
The Respiratory System © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4906 The respiratory system consists of the airways, the lungs, and the respiratory muscles that assist the movement of air into and out of the body. The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen and to remove carbon dioxide. Structures of Respiration The air starts its journey to the lungs through one of the two nostrils of the nose. The nasal cavity is lined with cilia and mucus that trap and eliminate particles. Blood vessels in the nose begin to warm the air entering the body while the mucus moistens the air. The air then enters the throat or pharynx. Once through the pharynx, the air enters the trachea. The trachea is the airway that leads from the pharynx to the lungs and is also called the windpipe. The trachea has rings of cartilage that help it to stay open and are lined with cilia and mucus to trap invading particles. The lungs are the key organs of the respiratory system. The left bronchus leads into the left lung and the right bronchus leads into the right lung. The bronchi branch off into smaller and smaller passageways. At the very end of each branch are structures called alveoli. Process of Gas Exchange When air enters the alveoli in the lungs, oxygen passes through the walls of the alveoli and then the walls of the capillaries and into the blood. Carbon dioxide passes from the blood, through the capillary walls and into the alveoli. This is the process of gas exchange. The alveoli are small sacs within the lungs that specialize in the exchange of gas between the blood and air. The Mechanics of Breathing The diaphragm plays an important role in the breathing process. When a person inhales, the rib muscles contract which cause the chest to move up and out. At the same time,