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Flip Charts

Science: Genetics & Heredity

Life Science - Middle School

 
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Copyright © NewPath Learning. All rights reserved. www.newpathlearning.com Charts Charts 34-6014 GENETICS HEREDITY & GENETICS HEREDITY & Sturdy, Free-Standing Design, Perfect for Learning Centers! Reverse Side Features Questions, Labeling Exercises, Vocabulary Review & more!
Phone: 800-507-0966 Fax: 800-507-0967 www.newpathlearning.com NewPath Learning® products are developed by teachers using research-based principles and are classroom tested. The company’s product line consists of an array of proprietary curriculum review games, workbooks, posters and other print materials. All products are supplemented with web-based activities, assessments and content to provide an engaging means of educating students on key, curriculum-based topics correlated to applicable state and national education standards. Copyright © 2009 NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Curriculum Mastery® and NewPath Learning® are registered trademarks of NewPath Learning LLC. Science Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts provide comprehensive coverage of key standards-based curriculum in an illustrated format that is visually appealing, engaging and easy to use. Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts can be used with the entire classroom, with small groups or by students working independently. Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart Set features 10 double-sided laminated charts covering grade-level specific curriculum content on one side plus write-on/wipe-off charts on reverse side for student use or for small-group instruction. Built-in sturdy free-standing easel for easy display Spiral bound for ease of use Activity Guide with black-line masters of the charts for students to fill-in, key vocabulary terms, corresponding quiz questions for each chart, along with answers Ideal for Learning centers In class instruction for interactive presentations and demonstrations Hands-on student use Stand alone reference for review of key science concepts Teaching resource to supplement any program HOW TO USE Classroom Use Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart can be used to graphically introduce or review a topic of interest. Side 1 of each Flip Chart provides graphical representation of key concepts in a concise, grade appropriate reading level for instructing students. The reverse Side 2 of each Flip Chart allows teachers or students to fill in the call-outs of key structures and summarize key concepts. Note: Be sure to use an appropriate dry-erase marker and to test it on a small section of the chart prior to using it. The Activity Guide included provides a black-line master of each Flip Chart which students can use to fill in before, during, or after instruction. On the reverse side of each black-line master are questions corresponding to each Flip Chart topic which can be used as further review or as a means of assessment. While the activities in the guide can be used in conjunction with the Flip Charts, they can also be used individually for review or as a form of assessment or in conjunction with any other related assignment. Learning Centers Each Flip Chart provides students with a quick illustrated view of grade-appropriate curriculum concepts. Students may use these Flip Charts in small group settings along with the corresponding activity pages contained in the guide to learn or review concepts already covered in class. Students may also use these charts as reference while playing the NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Independent student use Students can use the hands-on Flip Charts to practice and learn independently by first studying Side 1 of the chart and then using Side 2 of the chart or the corresponding graphical activities contained in the guide to fill in the answers and assess their understanding. Reference/Teaching resource Curriculum Mastery® Charts are a great visual supplement to any curriculum or they can be used in conjunction with NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Chart # 1: Chart # 2: Chart # 3: Chart # 4: Chart # 5: Chart # 6: Chart # 7: Chart # 8: Chart # 9: Chart #10: Plant & Animal Cells Chromosomes, Genes & DNA Meiosis Mitosis - Cellular Reproduction Genetics - The Study of Heredity Genes and Heredity How Genes Work Human Genetic Disorders Stem Cells Gene Technology
Gene Technology Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Using PCR, minute amounts of DNA can be replicated very rapidly producing enough DNA to easily detect, study and use in a variety of applications. PCR has become an essential tool in crime investigations and diagnosing genetic diseases. Producing a Vaccine Using genetic engineering techniques, vaccines can be developed by inserting genes from disease-causing microbes into harmless bacteria or viruses. Once these modified harmless microbes are injected into the body, they stimulate the production of disease-attacking antibodies. T T C G G T A A C G G DNA Fingerprinting Each person has a unique set of DNA. Because of this uniqueness, it can be used to produce a genetic fingerprint known as DNA fingerprinting. It is a method used by scientists to solve crimes, determine familial relationships or to track hereditary diseases. 1. DNA is extracted from the cell. 2. The extracted DNA is cut into smaller pieces with special enzymes. 3. The DNA pieces are placed on a gel that uses electric current to push them through the gel and separate them according to size. The larger DNA pieces remain closer to the top, while the smaller ones move towards the bottom. 4. The separated DNA pieces on the gel are then stained to reveal their unique banded pattern known as a DNA fingerprint. gel (stained) electrophoresis system DNA added A person injected with the harmless virus containing the gene for the antigen produces antibodies against it. www.newpathlearning.com © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4639 Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering is used to produce a variety of medicines and create crop plants that produce more food and resist pests. Moving a gene from the chromosome of one organism to another DNA 2 copies 4 copies 8 copies 16 copies DNA strand pancreas Bacteria cells insulin gene gene for antigen Pathogen (disease-causing microbe) chromosome DNA containing the desired gene is extracted from a pancreas cell. Enzymes insert the desired gene into DNA vector. Recombinant DNA molecule is inserted back into bacteria cells. Genetically engineered bacteria multiply and express the insulin gene to produce insulin. DNA (plasmid) vector extracted from a bacterium The gene is inserted into a harmless virus.
\|xiBAHBDy01748mzV www.newpathlearning.com © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4639 Gene Technology Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering is used ___________________________ ____________________________________________________. Moving a gene from the chromosome of one organism to another Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Using PCR, minute amounts of __________ can be replicated very rapidly producing enough DNA to easily detect, study and use in a variety of applications. PCR has become an essential tool in ______________________________________________________. Producing a Vaccine Using genetic engineering techniques, vaccines can be developed by ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________. T T C G G A person injected with the harmless virus containing the gene for the _______________ produces ____________ against it. 2 copies 4 copies 8 copies 16 copies DNA strand pancreas Bacteria cells insulin gene chromosome DNA containing the desired _____________ is extracted from a pancreas cell. _____________ insert the desired gene into DNA vector. ______________ DNA molecule is inserted back into bacteria cells. Genetically engineered bacteria multiply and express the ___________ ___________ to produce ______________ . DNA (plasmid) vector extracted from a bacterium The __________ is inserted into a harmless virus. DNA Fingerprinting Each person has a unique set of _______. As a result of this uniqueness, it can be used to produce a genetic fingerprint known as ______________ _____________________. It is a method used by scientists to ________________________________________________ _______________________________________. 1. 2. 3. 4. ________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ______________________________ ___________________________ DNA added Key Vocabulary Terms antibodies electrophoresis antigen genetic engineering chromosome pathogen DNA fingerprint polymerase chain reaction DNA plasmid recombinant DNA
G A A G U C U U C C G A G G G U U U U A A A A A C C C G U A C G A C protein chain ribosome mRNA codon DNA Structure Chromosomes are made up of DNA. DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. The hereditary information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T). The order, or sequence, of these bases, determines the information available for building and maintaining an organism; similar to the way in which letters of the alphabet appear in a certain order to form words and sentences. DNA bases pair up with each other, A with T and C with G, to form units called base pairs. Each chromosome contains thousands of genes. A gene is a section of a DNA strand that is made up of a series of bases which contains the information for cells to make one specific protein. Proteins in cells act as messengers and help to determine the traits of an organism such as the different shapes, sizes, colors and other features found in living organisms. Copying DNA The amount of DNA doubles during the beginning of mitosis. The double stranded DNA unzips and each strand becomes a template on which a new strand is formed. Complementary bases pair-up with the exposed bases on the template strand. Every amino acid is coded by a sequence of three bases called a codon. A copy of the DNA (mRNA) is transferred from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Translation mRNA runs through the ribosome three bases at a time; tRNA brings amino acids to the ribosome. Each amino acid is attached to the growing protein chain in proper order. DNA nucleolus nucleus DNA RNA Protein Transcription Translation C G A amino acid amino acid anticodon tRNA mRNA DNA Transcription DNA is copied to a single strand of RNA called messenger RNA (mRNA). enzyme sugar gene base nucleotide new strands enzyme old strands (templates) hydrogen bonds phosphate group chromosomes centromere Making a Protein C G A T How Genes Work T T T T T T T T T T T T T T A A A A A A A A G G G G G G G G G G G G C C C C C C C C www.newpathlearning.com © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4636
G A A G U C U U C C G A G G G U U U U A A A A A C C C G U A C G A C protein chain ribosome mRNA codon \|xiBAHBDy01751mzV DNA Structure Chromosomes are made up of _____________ . DNA, or __________________________ _______________ , is the __________________ material in humans and almost all other organisms. The hereditary information in DNA is stored as a ______________ made up of _____________ chemical bases: __________________ (A), _________________ (G), ________________ (C) and __________________ (T). DNA bases pair up with each other, ____ with ____ and ____ with ____ , to form units called _______________ _______________ . Each __________________ contains thousands of genes. A __________________ is a section of a DNA strand that is made up of a series of bases which contains the information for cells to make one specific protein. __________________ in cells act as __________________ and help to determine the _________________ of an organism. Copying DNA The amount of DNA doubles during the beginning of ________________ . The double stranded DNA ________________ and each strand becomes a ________________ on which a new strand is formed. ___________________ ________________ pair-up with the exposed bases on the ________________ strand. Every _____________ _____________ is coded by a sequence of _____________ _____________ called a _____________ . A copy of the ___________ ( __________ ) is transferred from the nucleus to the _______________________. Translation mRNA runs through the _______________ three bases at a time; _________ brings ______________ ______________ to the ______________ . Each amino acid is attached to the growing ______________ ______________ in proper order. DNA nucleus DNA RNA Protein Transcription Translation C G A amino acid anticodon tRNA enzyme Making a Protein C G A T How Genes Work T T T T T T T T T T T T T T A A A A A A A A G G G G G G G G G G G G C C C C C C C C www.newpathlearning.com © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4636 Transcription DNA is copied to a single strand of RNA called ___________________ _________ (mRNA). enzyme Key Vocabulary Terms amino acid anticodon base pairs chromosome codon complementary base pairs cytoplasm DNA template mRNA nucleolus nucleus protein transcription translation tRNA
Meiosis I Meiosis II Meiosis During meiosis, a parent cell divides into four sex cells each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cells. Sex cells of males are called sperm cells and sex cells of females are called egg cells. Anaphase I The chromosome pairs split and pull apart to opposite ends of the cell. Anaphase II The centromeres split and the single chromosomes move apart to opposite ends of the cell. Metaphase II Chromosome pairs line up in the middle of the cell. Prophase II Double-stranded chromosomes and spindle fibers reappear in each new cell. Telophase II & Cytokinesis Four sex cells are produced, each with only one chromosome from each original pair. Punnett Square female parent male parent A Punnett Square shows all the possible allele (gene) combinations in the offspring of two organisms. RR Rr Rr rr Rr Rr R r R r Prophase I Before meiosis begins, chromosomes in the parent cell are copied. The nuclear membrane breaks apart and spindle fibers begin to form. Telophase I & Cytokinesis The cells split and each of the two new cells formed has half the number of chromosomes. Metaphase I The chromosome pairs line up in the middle of the cell and the spindle fibers attach to each chromosome at the centromere. www.newpathlearning.com © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4632 Meiosis
Key Vocabulary Terms allele Interphase Anaphase Metaphase centromere Prophase chromatin Punnett square chromosome sex cells Cytokinesis sperm cells egg cells spindle fibers gene Telophase Meiosis I Meiosis II Meiosis During _________________ , a parent cell divides into ____________ sex cells each with ____________ the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. Sex cells of males are called ________________ ____________ and sex cells of females are called ____________ ____________ . __________________ The _______________ _______________ split and pull apart to opposite ends of the cell. Anaphase II The _______________ split and the single _______________ move apart to _________________ _________________ of the cell. Metaphase II _________________ pairs line up in the _________________ of the cell. Telophase II & Cyto kinesis Four ___________ ___________ are produced, each with only _____________ chromosome from each original pair. __________________ Before _________________ begins, ___________________ in the parent cell are copied. The nuclear membrane breaks apart and _________________ _________________ begin to form. __________________ & __________________ The cells _____________ and each of the two new cells formed has _____________ the number of ____________________ . __________________ Double-stranded ____________________ and __________________ ________________ reappear in each new cell. __________________ The ___________________ ________________ line up along the ________________ of the cell and the ________________ ________________ attach to each chromosome at the ___________________ . Punnett Square female parent male parent A Punnett Square shows ________________________________ ____________________ _________________. Rr Rr R r R r www.newpathlearning.com © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4632 Meiosis \|xiBAHBDy01756rzu
Mitosis Cell Growth DNA Replication Cytokinesis Preparation for Mitosis Interphase The Cell Cycle Cells reproduce by a process called cell division. The cell cycle is the sequence of stages of growth and division that a cell undergoes. The three stages of the cell cycle include interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis. The chromatin condenses and spindle fibers form at each side of the cell. The nuclear membrane breaks apart. The spindle fiber splits the centromere and the chromatids move to opposite sides of the cell. Interphase is the first stage of the cell cycle and the period before cell division. During this phase, the cell matures, copies its DNA, and prepares to divide. daughter cells The chromosomes line up along the center of the cell and the spindle fibers attach to each chromosome at the centromere. Stages of Mitosis Interphase Anaphase Telophase & Cytokinesis Prophase Metaphase During Telophase the chromosomes loosen on each side and the nuclear membrane begins to form around the chromatin (strands of DNA). During Cytokinesis the cell membrane pinches in at the middle of the cell dividing the cell into two separate daughter cells. Each daughter cell gets half of the cell organelles and an identical set of chromosomes. Plant Cell Division plate forming www.newpathlearning.com © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4633 Mitosis-Cellular Reproduction chromatids chromatin centromere
\|xiBAHBDy01758lz[ Key Vocabulary Terms Anaphase Interphase cell plate Metaphase centromere nuclear membrane chromatid Prophase chromatin spindle fibers Cytokinesis Telophase daughter cells The cell cycle The Cell Cycle Cells reproduce by a process called ___________________. The __________ ________________ is the sequence of stages of growth and division that a cell undergoes. The three stages of the cell cycle include _________________, ____________________, and ____________________. The _________________ condenses and spindle fibers form at each side of the cell. The nuclear __________________ breaks apart. The spindle fiber splits the __________________ and the __________________ move to opposite sides of the cell. __________________ is the first stage of the cell cycle and the period before cell division. During this phase, the cell ________________ , copies its __________, and prepares to _______________ . The ____________________ line up along the _______________of the cell and the _______________ _______________ attach to each chromosome at the __________________ . Stages of Mitosis During _________________ the _________________ loosen on each side and the nuclear membrane begins to form around the _________________ (strands of DNA). During _________________ the cell membrane pinches in at the middle of the cell dividing the cell into two separate _______________ _________. Each daughter cell gets half of the cell organelles and an __________________ set of chromosomes. _______________________________ Plant Cell Division www.newpathlearning.com © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4633 Mitosis-Cellular Reproduction
Plant & Animal Cell s www.newpathlearning.com © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4631 Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Cell membrane Ribosomes Nucleolus Mitochondrion protein carbohydrate Inside Cell Outside Cell lipid bilayer Cell membrane is the gate keeper of the cell that controls the passage of materials into and out of the cell. Endoplasmic reticulum is a transport system of tubes and channels connecting organelles in the cell. Nucleus is the control center of the cell. It houses the nucleolus and the genetic material (chromatin). Nuclear envelope is a membrane which surrounds and protects the nucleus. Nucleolus is the site where ribosomes are made. Chromatin contains the genetic material that is used for directing the cell functions. Nuclear pores allow materials to pass in and out of the nucleus. Ribosomes are the factories that produce proteins needed by the cell. Cytoplasm is a gel-like substance containing the organelles. Lysosome contains chemicals (enzymes) that break down and recycle harmful materials. Mitochondrion is a rod-like structure that converts the energy in food molecules to a form that the cell can use. Golgi bodies are organelles that direct different materials made in the cell where they need to go. Cell wall is a rigid outer layer of plant cells that provides support. Vacuoles are sacs that contain water and store nutrients and waste products. Microfilaments (cytoskeleton) Centrioles Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll which captures energy from the Sun and uses it to produce food for the plant in a process known as photosynthesis. Thylakoid Lamella Granum Double membrane Plant Cell Animal Cell
\|xiBAHBDy01768kzU Plant & Animal Cell s www.newpathlearning.com © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4631 Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Cell membrane Ribosomes Nucleolus Key Vocabulary Terms cell membrane lysosomes cell wall microfilaments centrioles mitochondrion chlorophyll nuclear envelope chloroplast nuclear pore chromatin nucleolus cytoplasm nucleus endoplasmic reticulum ribosome Golgi bodies vacuole carbohydrate Inside Cell lipid bilayer The gate keeper of the cell that controls the passage of materials into and out of the cell is called the _____________ ______________________________. Centrioles Plant Cell Animal Cell ______________________ contain ______________________ which captures energy from the Sun and uses it to produce food for the plant in a process known as ______________________ . _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________
www.newpathlearning.com © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4640 Chromosomes, Genes & DNA A A A C C C C G G G G T T T chromosome pair gene A B c D e F G h i J a b C d E f g H I j Chromosomes are made up of DNA. DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. The hereditary information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T). The order, or sequence, of these bases, determines the information available for building and maintaining an organism, similar to the way in which letters of the alphabet appear in a certain order to form words and sentences. DNA bases pair up with each other, A with T and C with G, to form units called base pairs. Each chromosome contains thousands of genes. A gene is a section of a DNA strand that is made up of a series of bases which contains the information for cells to make one specific protein. DNA strand genes proteins chromosomes centromere nucleolus nucleus cell Human Karyotype A karyotype is a picture of the complete set of chromosomes in a cell. Scientists examine a karyotype to identify and evaluate the size, shape and number of chromosomes in a human cell. Extra, missing or abnormal positions of chromosome pieces can cause problems with a person's growth, development and body functions. A normal human male karyotype is represented as 46, XY and a normal female karyotype is represented as 46, XX. Individuals with chromosomal disorders include Down Syndrome (47, XY, +21) and Turner’s Syndrome (45, X) among others. 5 4 3 2 1 6 13 14 19 20 21 22 20 15 16 18 17 7 8 9 10 11 12 XX (female) XY (male) Chromosome Spread Identifying Chromosomes 1-3 Very long; centromere in the center 4-5 Very long; centromere not in the center 6-12 Long; centromere not in the center 13-15 Medium; centromere above the center 16-18 Medium; centromere at or close to center 19-20 Short; centromere at or close to center 21-22 Short; centromere not in the center Sex chromosomes X is long; centromere in the center Y is short; centromere above the center Chromosome Characteristics or Karyotype images courtesy of Joana Costa, Genetics Department, Liverpool Women's Hospital
A A A C C C C G G G G T T T J Chromosomes, Genes and DNA ___________________ are made up of DNA. DNA, or __________________________, is the __________________________ in humans and almost all other organisms. The hereditary information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: ________________, ________________, ________________ and ________________. The order, or sequence, of these bases, determines the information available for building and maintaining an organism, similar to the way in which letters of the alphabet appear in a certain order to form words and sentences. DNA bases pair up with each other, ___ with T and C with ___, to form units called _______________________. Each chromosome contains thousands of _________________. A ________________ is a section of a DNA strand that is made up of a series of bases which contains the information for cells to make one specific ________________. DNA strand nucleolus nucleus cell gene A B c D e F G h i a b C d E f g H I www.newpathlearning.com © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4640 Chromosomes, Genes & DNA Chromosome Spread Identifying Chromosomes 1-3 4-5 6-12 13-15 16-18 19-20 21-22 Sex chromosomes Chromosome Characteristics 1 2 3 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 19 20 21 22 XX (female) XY (male) 15 16 17 18 4 5 or A _________________ is a picture of the complete set of ___________________ in a cell. Scientists examine a karyotype to identify and evaluate the size, shape and number of chromosomes in a human cell. Extra, missing or abnormal positions of chromosome pieces can cause problems with a person's growth, development and body functions. A normal human male karyotype is represented as _______________ and a normal female karyotype is represented __________________. Individuals with chromosomal disorders include ________________________________ (47, XY, +21) and ________________________________ (45, X) among others. Key Vocabulary Terms Adenine DNA base pairs hereditary material centromere gene chemical base Guanine chromosome karyotype chromosome spread protein Cytosine Thymine 5 4 3 2 1 6 13 14 19 20 21 22 20 15 16 18 17 7 8 9 10 11 12 XX (female) XY (male) or Human Karyotype \|xiBAHBDy01748mzV
earlobe freckles Widow’s peak eyebrow shape www.newpathlearning.com © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4635 Genes and Heredity Heredity Heredity is the passing of traits or characteristics from one generation to the next. When an egg and a sperm unite, a copy of each parent’s genes is incorporated into the resulting embryo. Humans have about 100,000 genes spread over 46 chromosomes. Half of these chromosomes come from the person’s mother, and the other half come from the person’s father. A Look at Traits The laws of dominance determine whether a child will display the trait coded for by a gene inherited from its father or its mother. Some genes, called dominant genes, express themselves when only one copy is present. Other genes, called recessive genes, express themselves only when two copies are present. Scientists use capital letters to designate dominant genes and lowercase letters to represent recessive ones. An individual with two recessive genes or two dominant genes for a trait is said to be homozygous for that trait. An individual with one dominant gene and one recessive gene is said to be heterozygous. Making a Pedigree A pedigree is a diagram showing the transmission of a genetic trait through several generations of a family. It provides clues to the kinds of traits that may be passed on to future offspring. A pedigree is also useful for determining the genotype of an individual, as well as predicting the genotypes of future generations. In a pedigree, each individual is represented by an Arabic number, while each generation is represented by a Roman numeral. Squares represent males and circles represent females. A shaded box indicates an individual who displays the characteristic being studied. The genetic makeup of an individual is known as a genotype, while the observable physical characteristics that result from an individual’s genotype is known as a phenotype. Genetic Traits Trait Dominant Gene Recessive Gene chromosome pair gene A B c D e F G h i J a b C d E f g H I j Human Karyotype 1 2 3 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 19 20 21 22 XX (female) XY (male) 15 16 17 18 4 5 or DNA gene Inheritance of Attached Earlobes Generation I Generation II Father Ee ee Mother ee child 1 Ee child 2 Ee child 3 tongue rolling roller nonroller Widow’s peak present absent shape of