Life Science - Middle School

DAIRY The six different types of nutrients that a body needs are: Carbohydrates Minerals Fats Vitamins Proteins Water The energy that nutrients provide is measured in calories. A calorie is defi ned as the amount of energy needed to increase the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius. Nutrients are the raw materials that are provided by food for energy and all essential processes of the body. The food pyramid is a basic guide to a healthy diet. Foods are categorized into six separate groups along with the daily recommended number of servings of each group. Nutrients water molecule Physcial activity is also recommended for a balance between food and exercise. Teenagers should be physically active for 60 minutes everyday, or most days. Carbohydrates are nutrients that are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are a major source of energy for humans and other living organisms. There are simple and complex carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates are also known as sugars. Complex carbohydrates are made up of units of sugar linked together. Starch and ber are examples of complex carbohydrates. Fats are high in energy and are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Fats form certain parts of the cell structure, insulate the body from heat loss, and protect internal organs. There are two types of fats: saturated and unsaturated. Saturated fats are normally solid at room temperature and are found in food items like meat, dairy, and eggs. Usually, food items that contain saturated fats also contain cholesterol. Unsaturated fats are normally liquid at room temperature like the oils found in seafood and olives. Vitamins are an important part of a healthy diet because they help to carry out certain chemical reactions within the body. Although the body is able to make a few vitamins, most must be obtained from various foods. Fat-soluble vitamins dissolve in fat where they are stored and include vitamins A, D, E, and K. Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water and cannot be stored in the body. Water-soluble vitamins include vitamins C and B. Water-soluble vitamins are important to have in your daily diet since they are not stored in the body. Minerals are nutrients that are absorbed by plants from the soil and cannot be made by living organisms. Only a small amount of minerals are needed for the body. Water is the most important nutrient of them all. Many important cell processes take place in water including the breakdown of nutrients. The average body needs about two liters of water everyday. Cholesterol Cholesterol is a fatlike substance typically found in animal products but it is also produced by the liver. Since only a small amount of fat is needed, a high fat content diet may result in plague build up in the arteries potentially causing heart disease. normal artery clogged artery Proteins are nutrients that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen needed for growth and repair of tissues. Foods high in protein are meats, dairy, nuts, beans, and sh. Amino acids are the small units that are linked together chemically to make up proteins. The 20 different amino acids make up thousands of different proteins. While the body can make half of the amino acids it needs, the rest must be obtained from various foods. Photos courtesy of USDA. Nutrition © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4903
calorie minerals carbohydrate oils dairy protein food pyramid saturated fat fruit unsaturated fat grains vegetables meat vitamins Key Vocabulary Terms Nutrients water molecule What are nutrients? ___________________________________________________ ______________________________________________ Describe how foods are categorized. _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ Describe each of the following nutrients: Carbohydrates _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Fats __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Cholesterol ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Proteins _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Minerals ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Vitamins ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Water ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Nutrition © C opyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4903 \|xiBAHBDy01777mzV