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Flip Charts

USAGE: Types of Sentences & Grammar Rules Flip Chart Set

English Language Arts, Grade 4

 
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Sturdy, Free-Standing Design, Perfect for Learning Centers! Reverse Side Features Questions, Labeling Exercises, Vocabulary Review & more!
ELA Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts provide comprehensive coverage of key standards-based concepts in an illustrated format that is visually appealing, engaging and easy to use. Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts are “write-on/wipe-off” and can be used with the entire classroom, with small groups or by students working independently. This Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart Set features 10 double-sided laminated charts that introduce English Language Arts standards and write-on/wipe off activities for student use or for small group instruction Built-in sturdy free-standing easel for easy display Spiral bound for ease of use Activity Guide with blackline masters of the charts for students to use in centers or independently Ideal for In class instruction for interactive presentations and demonstrations Hands-on student use Teaching resource to supplement any program Learning Centers Stand alone reference for review of key ELA concepts C B A Complete & Incomplete Sentences Abbreviations Combining Sentences Capitalization Kinds of Sentences Letter Writing: Friendly & Business Subject & Verb Agreement Simple, Compound & Complex Sentences Sentences: Fragments, Complete & Run-on Usage: Commonly Confused Words Chart # 1: Chart # 2: Chart # 3: Chart # 4: Chart # 5: Chart # 6: Chart # 7: Chart # 8: Chart # 9: Chart #10: HOW TO USE Classroom Use Each ELA Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart can be used for enhancing reading comprehension and language arts instruction. The front page of each Flip Chart provides graphical representation of the topic in a concise, grade appropriate reading level for instructing students. The reverse side of each Flip Chart provides activities for students to practice. Note: Be sure to use an appropriate dry-erase marker and to test it on a small section of the chart prior to using it. The Activity Guide included provides a black-line master of each Flip Chart which students can use to fill in before, during or after instruction. ELA Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts are a great supplement to any ELA program. While the activities in the guide can be used in conjunction with the Flip Charts, they can also be used individually for review or as a form of assessment or in combination with other related classroom activities. Learning Centers Each Flip Chart provides students with a quick illustrated view of grade appropriate language arts concepts. Students may use these Flip Charts in small group settings along with the corresponding activity pages contained in the guide to learn or review concepts already covered in class. Students may also use these charts as reference while playing NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Independent Student Use Students can use the hands-on Flip Charts to practice and learn independently by first studying Side 1 of the chart and then using Side 2 of the chart, or the corresponding graphical activities contained in the guide, to fill in the answers and assess their understanding. Reference/Teaching Resource Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts are a great visual supplement to any curriculum or they can be used in conjunction with NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Phone: 800-507-0966 Fax: 800-507-0967 www.newpathlearning.com NewPath Learning® products are developed by teachers using research-based principles and are classroom tested. The company’s product line consists of an array of proprietary curriculum review games, workbooks, charts, posters, visual learning guides, interactive whiteboard software and other teaching resources. All products are supplemented with web-based activities, assessments and content to provide an engaging means of educating students on key, curriculum-based topics correlated to applicable state and national education standards. Copyright © 2015 NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Curriculum Mastery® and NewPath Learning® are registered trademarks of NewPath Learning LLC. Visit www.newpathlearning.comfor a digital version of this Flip Chart set and other Online Resources.
A sentence always begins with a capital letter, ends with a terminal punctuation mark, and can stand alone. It presents a complete idea. A sentence must end with a period, a question mark, or an exclamation point. Those are the terminal marks. [ . ? ! ] There are four kinds of sentences. Statements tell. Sharon walked to the park . Commands give an order. The subject You is not stated. It is understood. Open the door . Questions ask. Are you going on the field trip ? Exclamations show excitement. I just got a puppy ! An incomplete sentence is one that does not begin with a capital letter OR does not end with terminal punctuation mark OR does not make sense If you read an incomplete sentence, you say, “Huh?” You get just a piece of information. It is as if someone cut off the start or end of the sentence. This leaves you with questions. It is clear that something is missing: It is almost (It is almost what? And where is the punctuation mark?) in the spring. (In the spring what happened or will happen? And where is the capital letter?) How did? (Who did what? What is this even about?) the red car (What about the car?) SAM Complete & Incomplete Sentences Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4020
Read each sentence. Label it C for complete sentence or I for incomplete sentence. 1. ______ Where are you going? 2. ______ at the zoo. 3. ______ Before we begin. 4. ______ You are a good writer. 5. ______ I enjoy Thanksgiving dinner! 6. ______ Will Frank come to visit us? 7. ______ Stop doing that! 8. ______ starting next Saturday, 9. ______ This is so much fun! 10. ______ Is it raining? C Complete & Incomplete Sentences Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4020
Nine months of the year can be abbreviated. May, June, and July are not abbreviated because they are already short: Jan. for January Aug. for August Feb. for February Sept. for September Mar. for March Oct. for October Apr. for April Nov. for November Dec. for December An abbreviation is a short form of a word. Many abbreviations start with a capital letter and end with a period. Mr. Browning Mrs. Woodley Ms. Jenson Dr. Ortiz (for Mister) (for Missus) (blend of Miss & Mrs.) (for Doctor) The days of the week always drop day in their abbreviations. Wednesday and Saturday drop even more letters: Sun. Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri. Sat. Addresses use these abbreviations: St. for Street Rd. for Road Ave. for Avenue Measurement abbreviations do not have capital letters. Weight abbreviations are strange: in. for inches ft. for feet oz. for ounces lb. for pounds 8 oz 4 oz 0 50 100 150 200 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 inch foot Abbreviations Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4017
Write the abbreviation for each underlined word. Use a capital letter and a period if needed. 1. Halloween is on Monday, October 31. _______________ _______________ 2. Mister Sanchez was born in September, 1981. _______________ _______________ 3. The small dog weighs 11 pounds, 3 ounces. _______________ _______________ 4. In April they are moving to a house on States Avenue. _______________ _______________ 5. The Ledbetters are having a party on Saturday, December 31. _______________ _______________ 6. I started going to my new school on Monday, January 7. _______________ _______________ 7. The wall’s height is 16 feet, 4 inches. _______________ _______________ 8. Doctor Townsend’s office is on Mirror Street. _______________ _______________ 9. Did you hear that Waterford Road will reopen on Thursday? _______________ _______________ 10. My birthday is coming up on Wednesday, August 8. _______________ _______________ January SAM Mon. Oct. Abbreviations Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4017
When you write, you don’t want to use too many short sentences. It will make your writing choppy. You can join ideas using conjunctions. The three most common conjunctions are: and, but, or. and (used to join similar ideas) Choppy : Dave is going to the restaurant. Sandra is going to the restaurant. Better : Dave and Sandra are going to the restaurant. Since both people are going to the restaurant, it makes sense to say so in one sentence using and. but (used to join opposite ideas) Choppy : I like reading. I don’t like math. Better : I like reading, but I don’t like math. This is a clear case of opposite ideas: liking one thing and not the other. Use but to join opposites. or (used to join alternatives or show uncertainty) Choppy : Robin has to choose. She can go to the park on Sunday. She can go to the picnic. She can go to the beach. Better : Robin has to choose whether to go to the park or the picnic or the beach on Sunday. Robin can’t go everywhere on Sunday. She has three alternatives. Use or to show her choices. Choppy : James is coming to my party. Maria is coming to my party. Better : James and Maria are coming to my party. THINK! How would the meaning change if the names were joined with or? Combining Sentences Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4031
Join the choppy sentences to make one better sentence. Use a conjunction in each sentence. If there is a sentence on both sides of the conjunction, add a comma in front of the conjunction. Choppy : Terri is going on the field trip. Mason can’t go. Better : Terri is going on the field trip, but Mason can’t go. 1. Choppy : Each day Pedro eats a banana. He eats an orange. He eats walnuts, too. Better : _____________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2. Choppy : That sound may be a jet taking off. It may be a jet landing. Better : _____________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 3. Choppy : Mom wants to go out to dinner. Dad doesn’t feel well. Better : _____________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 4. Choppy : The author wrote a popular book. She made it into a screenplay. Better : _____________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 5. Choppy : The dog might be a husky. It could be a malamute. Better : __________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 6. Choppy : Gavin had planned to go ice skating. There was a snowstorm. Better : __________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Mason’ s Surprise Illustrated by Paul Cinimod By Lynne Foti F 96 98 100 102 104 106 Combining Sentences Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4031
The following words should always be capitalized: awards The Victoria Cross is a British military decoration. businesses, organizations Mason goes to Churchville Junior & schools High School. days of the week We’re moving to our new home on Thursday. deities & religious figures God is worshipped by Jews and Christians. first word in a sentence Where did you leave the brochure? holidays St. Patrick’s Day is on March 17. months Mrs. Stern’s baby is due in September. pronoun I What did I do wrong? proper nouns: specific Paul Reardon is the new marketing director. person, place or thing They’re going to Yellowstone National Park. proper noun as adjective the Native American tribe; a Roman god team names We’ll watch a Chicago Bears game on Sunday. title in front of a Vice President Janet Browning person’s name religions Mai Ling is a practicing Buddhist. specific regions of the She lives in the on the East Coast. country; not compass directions Acronyms Acronyms are abbreviations written in capital letters without periods. The first time you introduce the name of an item in writing, put its acronym in parentheses after it. From then on, you can write the acronym instead of spelling out the item. American Medical Association (AMA) Central Standard Time (CST) National Football League (NFL) Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW) Capitalization Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4068
This is the proofreader’s mark that goes beneath a letter that should be capitalized. Make the proofreader’s mark for capitalization under each letter that needs capitalization. There may be more than one per line. 1. is the meeting in the prudential tower or the hancock building? 2. buy your office supplies at martinez office products, inc. 3. the milwaukee chamber of commerce sponsored the dance. 4. let’s invite the norrises to dinner next friday. 5. the guest speakers will be governor bailor and mayor ruiz. 6. the game was to be held on thanksgiving, but it’s been rescheduled for saturday. 7. is allied travel’s company headquarters still located on union street? 8. last month ben applied for a job to work at new path learning, a business in victor, new york. 9. my cousin and i attended a concert at the paradise performing arts arena. 10. the most valuable player (mvp) award ceremony will be held on may 15. 11. our office is closed on memorial day, the fourth of july, and labor day. 12. the hindu religion has many gods and goddesses. 13. rebecca purdom is the senator from rhode island. 14. the american cancer society (acs) is running an ad campaign to get smokers to quit. 15. did joe peters move from mississippi to texas? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # Capitalization Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4068
There are four kinds of sentences. The first word in any sentence must be capitalized. A sentence has a subject and a verb that matches the subject. Declarative sentences give information. They declare, or make statements. They are the most common type of sentences. I’ll turn 14 in three weeks. Imperative sentences are commands or polite requests. They always begin with a verb or with the word please. This is the one sentence type in which the subject does not appear. The subject you is understood but not stated. Don’t talk with your mouth full of food. Exclamatory sentences show excitement or shouting. They end with an exclamation mark. These sentences are the least-often used because too many exclamation marks reduce their effectiveness. I can’t wait to go to the concert! Interrogative sentences are questions. They always end with a question mark. They generally start with a question word such as who, what, when, where, why, which, or how. They can also begin with a helping verb. Who are you talking to? What time is the party this Sunday? When are we going on vacation? Where did Doug put the remote control? Why did he ask her that? Which pair of boots do you want to wear? How is Grandma feeling? Is that your missing sock? (Is is the helping verb for missing.) Did Sam already eat lunch? (Did is the helping verb for eat.) The great white shark is the largest predatory fish in the world. Please pick up the floor. This is my favorite ride! 1 + - - + 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 M2 M2 C 1 GHI PQRS Kinds of Sentences Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4070
Read each sentence. Add the ending punctuation mark. Then, identify the type of sentence. Use D for declarative, C for command/imperative, I for interrogative, and E for exclamatory. _____ 1. Who made the brownies for our bake sale ___ _____ 2. Stand under the arch ___ _____ 3. Derrick lost his shoe in the swamp ___ _____ 4. The deadline is July 31 ___ _____ 5. Turn off the water while brushing your teeth ___ _____ 6. Please build a fire ___ _____ 7. I can’t stand it anymore ___ _____ 8. Are the raspberries ready to pick ___ _____ 9. The winter solstice is the shortest day of the year ___ _____ 10. Where should we set up the tent ___ _____ 11. Hurry up, Tracy ___ _____ 12. We bought Dad a grill for Father’s day ___ _____ 13. Eat this soup ___ _____ 14. That’s so gross ___ _____ 15. Will Tessa meet us at the dock ___ I ? Kinds of Sentences Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4070
There are two kinds of letters: friendly and business. A friendly letter is sent to a family member or friend. A comma is used after the salutation, and the person just signs without typing his or her name. A business letter is sent to someone you don’t know well. It differs from a friendly letter in that it includes an inside address and a colon is used after the salutation. Cody 315 Betterin Road Matterton, NJ 09876 July 10, 2020 Dear Uncle Robin, I wanted you to know how much I enjoyed going camping with you last weekend. Nothing tastes better than marshmallows toasted over a campfire! The best part was seeing the shooting stars in the night sky. I’ve never seen that before. I can’t wait until we can do it again. See you soon. Love, 315 Betterin Road Matterton, NJ 09876 July 31, 2020 Best Biz, Inc. 1259 Watson Circle Reading, PA 25697 Dear Sir or Madam: Today I received a kite kit made by your company. It’s kit 43897. When I tried to put it together, two of the plastic “B” rods were missing. There was a note that said not to return it to the store but to write to you instead. Please send me two of the B rods immediately. Sincerely, Cody Franklin Cody Franklin heading, which is also the writer’s return address heading, which is also the writer’s return address inside address (receiver’s address that will also go on the envelope) salutation salutation signature signature block closing closing body body Letter Writing: Friendly & Business Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4071
Label each letter’s parts on the lines provided. Briana Rodriguez Briana Briana Rodriguez 755 Floyd Avenue Brockville, TN 45934 September 14, 2020 Rush School Board 385 Wheaton Center Road Bushkill, NY 15642 Dear School Board Members: I don’t think it’s fair that the students who get picked up from the junior high have to wait until all the buses have left. Usually we have to wait 20 minutes for the last bus to pull out. Why can’t our parents pick us up in the front circle so we aren’t interfering with the buses in the back circle? That simple change would enable everyone to leave at a similar time. Please consider my idea. Yours truly, 755 Floyd Avenue Brockville, TN 45934 September 21, 2020 Dear Francine, Boy, has it been dull around here since you moved away! Do you like your new house? Have you made any friends at your new school? How are your teachers? I miss you. I can’t wait until I can come to visit you and stay overnight. I can do any weekend in October. Call me! What kind of letter is this? _______________________________ What kind of letter is this? _______________________________ Your friend forever, Letter Writing: Friendly & Business Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4071
Subject & Verb Agreement Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4076 The subject of a sentence is the person, thing, or idea that does the action. The verb in a sentence tells the action taken. The action can be existing (any form of the verb to be ). The subject and verb must agree. The subject of a sentence is never found in a prepositional phrase. In addition to my friends, my brother is going on the ski trip. In addition to my friends is a prepositional phrase; therefore, my brother is the subject. Frieda’s dad, as well as her grandma, is waiting for us in the car. Frieda’s dad is the subject; as well as her grandma is a prepositional phrase. A singular subject takes a singular verb. Her cousin Jason plays for the Cincinnati Bearcats. The table was coated with a thick layer of dust. I am glad that you came to visit me. A plural subject takes a plural verb. Six people were sitting around the campfire. The hens were trapped in their cages. They are too loud! A compound subject takes a plural verb. Compound subjects are comprised of two or more nouns and pronouns joined by the word and . Brian and I are going to get some ice cream. Apple, cherry, and chocolate cream are her favorite pies. At first glance, the examples below look like compound subjects, but they are not. The subject joined by or or nor uses a singular verb. In my opinion, blue or green is the best color for this room. Neither Sheila nor Annette is answering her phone. These indefinite pronouns take a singular verb: somebody, nobody, anybody, everybody, someone, no one, anyone, and everyone. Is anyone available to help me in the kitchen? Nobody is more excited than the coach and her team.
Subject & Verb Agreement Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4076 Underline the subject of the sentence. Write an appropriate present tense verb in the blank. 1. Everyone _________________ to meet us at the ticket booth. 2. Some firefighters ________________ into the burning building. 3. Jake and Ben __________________ the plans for their treehouse. 4. Did Marcy __________________ the contest? 5. Their house ______________ the blue one on the right. 6. Where _______________ everybody? 7. Sarah or Nicole __________________ to babysit on Saturday night. 8. Dolphins ___________________ echolocation to determine the size, shape, and location of prey. 9. In my house, nobody ever ___________________ to the door when the doorbell rings. 10. Neither Buddy nor Nutmeg ___________________ the dog groomer. Buddy Nutmeg
A simple sentence is usually short. It contains a subject and a verb. The subject is understood in an imperative sentence such as: Let’s take the subway. A complex sentence has an independent clause that could stand alone as a sentence (shown in orange below). It also has at least one subordinate (less important) clause (shown in blue below). The subordinate clause cannot stand on its own. When the subordinate clause comes at the start of the complex sentence, it is often followed by a comma. When the subordinate clause comes at the end of the complex sentence, there is no comma. If you’re going skiing, take me along. Take me along if you’re going skiing. When you hear the buzzer, please take the chicken out of the oven. Please take the chicken out of the oven when you hear the buzzer. As a result of the accident, my mom had to buy a new car. My mom had to buy a new car as a result of the accident. A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses (sentences) joined together with a semicolon (;) or joined by a comma and a conjunction (and, but, or, for, so yet, nor ). A semicolon joins two sentences that are closely related. My wedding anniversary is July 16; the day we got married it was incredibly hot and muggy. Notice that everything before the semicolon forms a complete sentence, and everything after the semicolon forms a complete sentence. The whole thing is a compound sentence. Marla Jamison is currently serving her third term in Congress, and Walt Reardon is serving his second term. Notice that everything before the comma forms a complete sentence, and everything after the conjunction (and) forms a complete sentence. The whole thing is a compound sentence. Sam is riding a horse. Myra walks to the bus stop. BUS STOP AD1B5 76 Simple, Compound & Complex Sentences Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4078
Identify each sentence as simple (S), compound (C), or complex (X). _____ 1. Sue noticed the black car leave the parking lot as she entered the building. _____ 2. Don’t lose your credit card; it is as valuable as cash! _____ 3. You must stay in school, or you must get a job. _____ 4. Is there a Tracker’s store in our area? _____ 5. We emerged from the barn after the tornado had passed. _____ 6. If you’d like to join the club, visit our web site. _____ 7. Jason pulled the toddler away from the busy road. _____ 8. Turn left onto Hedgehog Lane. _____ 9. Before the discovery of antibiotics, people frequently died of infection. _____ 10. Attendance was high, so the carnival stayed an additional day. _____ 11. Glenn will call you for an interview when an opening occurs. _____ 12. We tiptoed into the theater because we arrived so late. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # Arrival 10:00 am Speed Turn right on Hedgehog Lane 35 mph AD1B5 76 Simple, Compound & Complex Sentences Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4078
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # M2M2 C 1 GHI PQRS Sentences Have Perfect Punctuation A sentence is an independent clause that expresses a complete thought. It starts with a capital letter and ends with a terminal punctuation mark (a period, a question mark, or an exclamation mark). We bought peaches and made peach cobbler for dessert. Turn left at the next corner. (The subject You is understood in a command.) Sentence Fragments Have Too Much Punctuation A sentence fragment starts with a capital letter and ends with a terminal punctuation mark, but it does not state a complete thought. You read it, realize something is missing, and say, “Huh?” A fragment can often be repaired by adding it to the sentence before or after it. If you think that’s bad. (Note how the fragment leaves you hanging.) Wait until you hear what happened next! Fixed: If you think that’s bad, wait until you hear what happened next! Ninety percent of American adults. Own cell phones. Which is almost everyone. Fixed: Ninety percent of American adults own cell phones, which is almost everyone. Run-ons Sentences Have Wrong or Too Little Punctuation A run-on sentence consists of two independent clauses that are not joined by a conjunction or a semicolon. A comma splice is the most common kind of run-on sentence. It happens when a comma is used to join two sentences together without a conjunction. A run-on can often be repaired by changing the comma to a semicolon or by adding a conjunction. More than 100 people applied for the position, only three were interviewed. Fixed: