English Language Arts, Grade 4

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ELA Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts provide comprehensive coverage of key standards-based concepts in an illustrated format that is visually appealing, engaging and easy to use. Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts are “write-on/wipe-off” and can be used with the entire classroom, with small groups or by students working independently. This Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart Set features 10 double-sided laminated charts that introduce English Language Arts standards and write-on/wipe off activities for student use or for small group instruction Built-in sturdy free-standing easel for easy display Spiral bound for ease of use Activity Guide with blackline masters of the charts for students to use in centers or independently Ideal for In class instruction for interactive presentations and demonstrations Hands-on student use Teaching resource to supplement any program Learning Centers Stand alone reference for review of key ELA concepts C B A Literary Devices Author’s Purpose & Point of V iew Main Idea and Supporting Details Making Predictions Drawing Conclusions Summarize Cause and Effect Analogies Sequencing Elements of Fiction Chart # 1: Chart # 2: Chart # 3: Chart # 4: Chart # 5: Chart # 6: Chart # 7: Chart # 8: Chart # 9: Chart #10: HOW TO USE Classroom Use Each ELA Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart can be used for enhancing reading comprehension and language arts instruction. The front page of each Flip Chart provides graphical representation of the topic in a concise, grade appropriate reading level for instructing students. The reverse side of each Flip Chart provides activities for students to practice. Note: Be sure to use an appropriate dry-erase marker and to test it on a small section of the chart prior to using it. The Activity Guide included provides a black-line master of each Flip Chart which students can use to fill in before, during or after instruction. ELA Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts are a great supplement to any ELA program. While the activities in the guide can be used in conjunction with the Flip Charts, they can also be used individually for review or as a form of assessment or in combination with other related classroom activities. Learning Centers Each Flip Chart provides students with a quick illustrated view of grade appropriate language arts concepts. Students may use these Flip Charts in small group settings along with the corresponding activity pages contained in the guide to learn or review concepts already covered in class. Students may also use these charts as reference while playing NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Independent Student Use Students can use the hands-on Flip Charts to practice and learn independently by first studying Side 1 of the chart and then using Side 2 of the chart, or the corresponding graphical activities contained in the guide, to fill in the answers and assess their understanding. Reference/Teaching Resource Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts are a great visual supplement to any curriculum or they can be used in conjunction with NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Phone: 800-507-0966 Fax: 800-507-0967 NewPath Learning® products are developed by teachers using research-based principles and are classroom tested. The company’s product line consists of an array of proprietary curriculum review games, workbooks, charts, posters, visual learning guides, interactive whiteboard software and other teaching resources. All products are supplemented with web-based activities, assessments and content to provide an engaging means of educating students on key, curriculum-based topics correlated to applicable state and national education standards. Copyright © 2015 NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Curriculum Mastery® and NewPath Learning® are registered trademarks of NewPath Learning LLC. Visit www.newpathlearning.comfor a digital version of this Flip Chart set and other Online Resources.
Authors use literary devices to make their writing entertaining and to help the reader to form mental images from the text. Alliteration: Starting with Similar Sounds Alliteration is when multiple words in a sentence have the same beginning consonant sound. Alliterative sounds create rhythm and mood. Alliteration is often used in tongue twisters, riddles, nursery rhymes, and fairy tales. Pam placed peppermints on the plate. Kim came to fly the colorful kite. Hyperbole: Exaggerating for Effect Hyperbole is an obvious exaggeration. It is often used in tall tales and other humorous works. She drove that car faster than the speed of light. We are so hungry we could eat a horse. Onomatopoeia: Making Words from Sounds Onomatopoeia is a word that sounds like the word it describes. The word comes from the actual sound. They are usually but not always verbs. The duck quacked and flapped its wings as it chased the intruder from its nest. With my every step, the buzzing grew louder until at last I found the bee hive. Personification: Giving Life to Inanimate Objects Personification is giving a human quality to a nonhuman and often a nonliving thing. The wind howled outside my window. That last piece of cake kept calling my name. Literary Devices Visit for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4046
Read each sentence. Identify it as an example of alliteration (A), hyperbole (H), onomatopoeia (O), or personification (P). _____ 1. The drip, drip, drip of the faucet was getting on my nerves. _____ 2. It was so cold that the penguins were wearing coats. _____ 3. She’s already answered that question a million times. _____ 4. Three grey geese were in a green field grazing. _____ 5. The vine wove its fingers through the trellis. _____ 6. The dog plotted to steal Max's socks when he wasn’t looking. _____ 7. Ella heard a loud thump and spun around in surprise. _____ 8. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. _____ 9. We are weary of this wintry weather. _____ 10. Tracy lost control of her bike and smacked into the shed. _____ 11. He could have knocked me over with a feather. _____ 12. “There’s a certain slant of light... when it comes, the landscape listens, shadows hold their breath...” [Emily Dickinson] Literary Devices Visit for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4046 O
Read each text. Write the author’s purpose and point of view. The purpose can be: inform, entertain, persuade, or create a mood. The point of view can be: first person, second person, third person omniscient, or third person objective. Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth; Then took the other, as just as fair, And having perhaps the better claim, Because it was grassy and wanted wear; Though as for that the passing there Had worn them really about the same, ... I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I— I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference. excerpt from The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost Having a dog-limit law will not stop bad dog owners from allowing their dogs to howl at night or run loose through the neighborhood. A bad dog owner can cause more chaos with one dog than a good dog owner can with four. What’s needed is for the town to enforce the leash, noise, and dog-licensing ordinances that are already on the books. The next wave crashed upon Jake with such force that he was dragged under at least 20 feet. He felt himself carried with a mighty force towards the shore. He held his breath and tried to swim forward with all his might. Just as his lungs were ready to burst, he felt himself rising. His head shot above the water’s surface. Gasping for breath, he thought, “I’ve got a chance; I may survive this!” Author’s purpose Point of View Author’s Purpose & Point of View Visit for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4067
The main idea is what a paragraph or a passage is mostly about. The main idea is supported by details. Sometimes, the main idea is stated. Often it is not. Then you have to figure it out based on the details. What is this passage mostly about? The sky is black. Clouds roil, thunder rumbles, and lightning flashes. The radio issues a tornado warning. Suddenly, a dark cloud stretches toward the ground like a living thing. It twists wildly, growing thinner and longer until it touches down. It's a tornado! People run for cover. They hide in their basements or storm cellars. Most people, that is. Other people jump in their trucks. They drive toward the tornado! Are they crazy? No. They are storm chasers. They risk their lives to gather data about these deadly weather events. Main idea: Most people get out of the way of a tornado, but storm chasers drive toward it. (The main idea is not stated in a single sentence. It must be pulled together from the text. ) Supporting details: (1) People run for cover. (2) They hide in their basements or storm cellars. (3) Storm chasers risk their lives to gather data about these deadly weather events. What is this passage mostly about? Paid storm chasers are meteorologists. That means they have earned a college degree in weather science. They watch radar screens. They try to predict when and where the worst storms will occur. When they feel confident that a tornado will form, they drive to the area. Once they see a tornado, they race to meet it. Why? The storm chasers want to place tornado pods in the twister's path. A tornado's spinning winds may exceed 300 miles per hour! It will suck up the pod like a huge vacuum cleaner. The pod takes photos, wind, and temperature readings. It sends out a radio signal so it can be found after the tornado drops it. The data gathered by the pod helps meteorologists learn what goes on inside a tornado. Main idea: The storm chasers want to place tornado pods in the twister's path. (The main idea is stated in a single sentence. ) Supporting details: (1) Meteorologists predict the worst storms. (2) They put tornado pods in the storm’s path. (3) The pod takes photos, wind, and temperature readings. (4) The data gathered by the pod helps meteorologists learn about tornadoes. Main Idea & Supporting Details Visit for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4038
Main idea: Supporting Details: Read the text. Use the information to complete the graphic organizer. Alexander von Humboldt is the father of modern geography. Geography is the study of Earth's features such as rivers, mountains, and climates. Alexander’s discoveries helped us to understand our Earth. In 1799 he teamed up with Aime Bonpland. The pair sailed to South America. At that time, little was known about the continent. The men explored the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers. They took notes about the plants and animals they saw in the rain forest. They climbed in the Andes Mountains, too. Alexander saw that the coasts of South America and Africa fit together like puzzle pieces. He guessed that they had once been joined. In fact, 250 million years ago, all seven continents were one big land mass. Then, they drifted apart. They moved just a few inches each year. They are still moving today. Alexander was the first scientist to explain this continental drift. Alexander von Humboldt 1769-1859 Main Idea & Supporting Details Visit for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4038
Good readers make logical guesses about what will happen based on clues from the text. Predictions are like inferences. The difference is that you make inferences about nonfiction text and predictions about fiction. Here’s an excerpt from Johann Wyss’s The Swiss Family Robinson ; the father is the narrator. This occurs near the novel’s beginning; knowing that will help you to predict what happens next. Amid the roar of the thundering waves I suddenly heard the cry of “Land ho!” while at the same instant the ship ran aground with a frightful shock. It threw everyone to the floor and seemed to portend the vessel’s immediate destruction. The breaking of the ship caused dreadful sounds, and water poured in on all sides. I heard the voice of the captain above the tumult, shouting, “Lower the lifeboats!” His words went like a dagger to my heart, but seeing my sons’ terror, I composed myself, calling out, “Take courage, my boys! We are all above water yet. There is the land not far off; let us do our best to reach it. Remain with your mother, while I go to see what is to be done.” With that, I left them and went on deck. How to Make Predictions About Characters 1. Determine what motivates a character to predict what his or her next action will be. 2. Use the character’s past behavior to predict the character’s future behavior. 3. Be ready for plot twists. If events unfolded exactly as you expected, it wouldn't be a very interesting story. 4. Change your prediction as new information comes to light. Foreshadowing Foreshadowing occurs when the author hints at future events or even the final outcome of a story. Authors use foreshadowing to build suspense. They also use it to get the reader to anticipate that something is going to happen and then throw in a plot twist to surprise the reader. Here’s an example of foreshadowing: Abdu had no idea when he left home that morning that he would never see his parents again. Based on that sentence, your prediction could be: Abdu’s parents will die. Abdu will be kidnapped by slave traders. Abdu will be abducted by aliens. Part of your prediction is based on the time period, place, and genre of story you’re reading. For example, the last idea would only work if the book is science fiction. Making Predictions Visit for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4061
Read this excerpt from the novel The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain. Make a prediction about what will happen next. "Aunt Polly , I really did think my toe had gangrene, and it hurt so I never minded my tooth at all." "Your tooth, indeed! What's the matter with your tooth?" "One of them's loose, and it aches perfectly awful." "There, there, now , don't begin that groaning again. Open your mouth. Well—your tooth is loose, but you're not going to die about that. Mary, get me a silk thread, and a chunk of fire out of the kitchen stove." Filled with dread, Tom said, "Oh, please, auntie, don't pull it out. It don't hurt me any more. I wish I may never stir if it does! Please don't, auntie; I don't want to stay home from school." "Oh, you don't, don't you? So all this fuss was because you thought you'd get to stay home from school and go a-fishing? Tom, Tom, I love you so, and you seem to try every way you can to break my old heart with your outrageousness." The old lady made one end of the silk thread fast to Tom's loose tooth with a loop and tied the other to the bedpost. What happens next? Make a prediction in the crystal ball. After you have made your prediction, check its accuracy by reading the next part of the The Adventures of Tom Sawyer either in hard copy or online. This passage comes at the start of the sixth chapter. Making Predictions Visit for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4061 illustration by E. W. Kemble
Drawing conclusions helps you to be an active reader and better understand what you read. A conclusion is a reasonable decision you make based on the facts and details presented in a text. When you read this text, picture what is happening. Think about how the character feels and look for a clue as to why he’s doing what he’s doing. Charles wiped the sweat from his brow and scowled. Then he bent down and pulled some more weeds. At least it was easy enough to tell which were weeds and which were flowers. But the more time he spent, the larger the garden seemed to grow. Who had come up with the bright idea of Mother’s Day anyways? When you read this text, your first thought may be that the girl has a cold. But consider the clues: Trisha’s eyes were itchy, and her throat was scratchy. She reached for another tissue from the box and blew her nose. “I hate trees,” she grumbled. There are three steps to drawing a conclusion: 1. Consider what the text actually says. The author gives you clues. 2. Think about what would make sense in the situation. 3. Use your background knowledge (experiences) to make a logical choice about what will happen. Clues from the Text Charles is pulling weeds. He does not like the work. He is thinking about Mother’s Day. What I Know Mother’s Day is when you give gifts to your mom. Conclusion Charles is weeding a flower garden for his mom for Mother’s Day. Clues from the Text itchy eyes scatchy throat blowing runny nose “I hate trees” What I Know Tree pollen can cause allergy symptoms. Conclusion Trisha doesn’t have a cold; she is allergic to tree pollen. Drawing Conclusions Visit for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4047
Do not read this text the whole way through. Read a portion and then draw conclusions to answer the questions. Then read the next paragraph. Polar Bear Central It was not a wise place to build a town. Each fall, polar bears spend about three months living there. Churchill, on the west coast of the Hudson Bay in Canada, is a rest stop on the bears' annual journey to the pack ice. About 1,000 polar bears go there to wait for the Bay to freeze over. About 1,000 people live in the town. The bears and the residents must coexist. 1. Why is Churchill in a bad location? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 2. Which months are the polar bears in town? ____________________________________________________________ Nowhere else on Earth do so many bears gather in such a small area. Hundreds of tourists flock to Churchill. Now the Bay is freezing over later than it used to. Polar bears spend more time with more tourists. It’s a tragedy waiting to happen. 3. Why do tourists flock to Churchill every fall? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 4. What is the tragedy that the author thinks may happen? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ These bears haven’t eaten in months--not since the pack ice melted and left them land- locked. Yet some tourists act like the bears are tame! Some try to take photos too close to a bear. Others walk alone on the beach and almost invite an attack. The last fatal bear attack in Churchill occurred long ago. But in 2013, two people barely survived an attack. 5. Why do the tourists act differently around the polar bears than the Churchill residents do? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Drawing Conclusions Visit for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4047
To summarize a text, look for the main idea and supporting details. Then write the main idea in your own words. You are not copying the text; you are summing it up. Include only the most essential details. If a text has three paragraphs, the longest your summary should be is four sentences. That’s one sentence for each paragraph plus one to state the main idea. A summary should be much shorter than the text being summarized. For example, this text is 171 words, while its summary is just 52 words. Some animals live in a symbiotic relationship. It is a partnership in which both animals benefit. They are different species, yet they rely on each other. Some birds live this kind of lifestyle. Tiny Darwin ground finches help giant Galapagos tortoises by eating the ticks that are on the tortoises’ skin. This saves the tortoises from tick bites and gives the finches food. The petrel is bird that shares its nest with a tuatara, a lizard that hunts at night. The lizard eats the bugs that would bite the baby petrels. The tuatara will eat other birds’ eggs and babies, but it will not hurt the ones in the nest it shares with the petrel. Red-billed oxpeckers help out impalas. Impalas are antelopes that live on the African plains. The birds eat the ticks and fleas that infest the impalas. These parasites drink the impala's blood. The red-billed oxpeckers enjoy the food, and the impalas enjoy being pest-free. Article’s Main idea: Some birds live in a symbiotic relationship with other animals so that both species benefit. Support from paragraph 1: Tiny Darwin ground finches eat ticks from giant Galapagos tortoises. Support from paragraph 2: Petrels share their nests with tuataras that eat the bugs that would bite the birds’ babies. Support from paragraph 3: Red-billed oxpeckers eat the ticks and fleas on impalas in Africa. Summary: Some birds live in a symbiotic relationship with other animals so that both species benefit. Tiny Darwin ground finches eat ticks from giant Galapagos tortoises. Petrels share their nests with tuataras that eat the bugs that would bite the birds’ babies. Red-billed oxpeckers eat the ticks and fleas on impalas. Summarize Visit for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4048
Summarize the article below using the graphic organizer. Article’s Main idea: Support from paragraph 1: Support from paragraph 2: Support from paragraph 3: Support from paragraph 4: Summary: Could a Tree Grow on the Moon? Since the moon has no atmosphere or weather, it is a barren place. Nothing lives there because it is cold and lacks water. Yet when the astronauts landed there in 1969 during the Apollo 11 Mission, they planned to plant an oak tree. Would it have grown? We will never know. They ran out of time to plant it. Their plan was this: Dig a hole, put an acorn in it, water it, and place a small greenhouse over it. A greenhouse is a structure made of glass panels. The astronauts planned fill the greenhouse with carbon dioxide gas, which is what a tree needs in order to live. The acorn would have had moon soil and plenty of sunlight. If a sapling sprouted, it would have been enclosed by the greenhouse, which would trap the moisture and sun’s warmth. The greenhouse would have kept the tiny tree warm, and the water would not have escaped. It would’ve worked the same way as a terrarium. Trees make and use carbon dioxide, so it might have been able to survive for years. However, one day the tree would have grown so tall that it burst through the greenhouse roof. Once the glass broke, the water and carbon dioxide would have escaped and doomed the tree. It All Stacks Up Summarize Visit for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4048
12 6 9 3 1 11 2 10 4 5 7 8 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10 0 A cause is WHY something happens. To find the cause, ask “Why did this happen?” The gate is left open. The dog escapes from the yard. Mrs. Fielding drinks a cup of coffee at 10 p.m. She can’t fall asleep until 1 a.m. In October, the temperature drops to 30°F. Plants die, and the growing season ends. More than 3 inches of rain fell in two hours yesterday. The streets flooded. Mandy spends two hours in the sun without sunscreen. She gets a sunburn. One of Raymond’s sneakers is untied, and he does not know it. Raymond trips when he goes to kick the ball in gym class. An effect is WHAT happened as a result. To find the effect, ask, “What happened?” Cause and Effect Visit for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4049
Cause and Effect Visit for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4049 Read the cause or effect. Fill in the missing portion. You may use reference materials or the Web to find the answers. Cause Effect On April 19, 1775, American minutemen and British soldiers fought a battle in Lexington, Massachusetts. In 1776, America declared it was free of Great Britain’s control with the Declaration of Independence. Betsy Ross sewed the first U.S. flag. It had 13 stripes and 13 stars. George Washington was elected first president of the United States. In 1789, the U.S. Constitution was written. These first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution guarantee what U.S. citizens can do and say.
Analogies Visit for Online Learning Resources. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 92-4062 AMBULANCE SERVICE An analogy shows two ideas or things that are related in some way. To solve an analogy, you must first determine the relationship between the words given. Then, look for a word to make the other pair in the analogy show the same relationship. Analogies are always worded this way: ___________ is to ___________ as ___________ is to ___________ . Comparing Parts and Wholes This analogy compares the whole to one of its parts: Car is to steering wheel as laptop is to keyboard. Comparing Objects with Their Actions This analogy matches an object to its action: Ambulance is to speeding as tiger is to hunting. Comparing with Antonyms If the analogy compares two things are opposites, it uses antonyms, which are words with opposite meanings: Full is to empty as quiet is to talkative. (Full and empty are one set of antonyms; quiet and talkative are the other set.) Comparing Shades of Meaning This analogy includes shades of meaning: Furious is to angry as glaring is to bright. (Furious is a stronger word than angry, just as a glaring light is stronger than a bright light.) Comparing with Synonyms If the analogy compares two things that are alike, it uses synonyms, which are words with similar meanings: Grieve is to mourn as gregarious is to friendly. (Grieve and mourn are one set of synonyms; gregarious and friendly are the other set.)
2. Silly is to serious as depressed is to _________________. Write a word that will complete each analogy. Use a dictionary if necessary. 1. Field is to farm as _________________ is to hand. 3. _________________ is to heat as truck is to transport. 4. _________________ is to simple as challenging is to difficult. 5. Knife is to _________________ as needle is to sew. 6. Increase is to decrease as _________________ is to straight. 7. Face is to mouth as _________________ is to bed. 9. Scratch is to gouge as _________________ is to filthy. 8. Hire is to fire as _________________ is to discard. 10. _________________ is to sight as ear is to hearing. 11. Page is to book as Arizona is to _________________. 12. Hurricane is