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Science: Earth Science

Earth Science - Middle School

 
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Copyright © NewPath Learning. All rights reserved. www.newpathlearning.com Charts Charts EARTHSCIENCE EARTHSCIENCE \|xiBAHBDy01213pzY 34-6008 Sturdy, Free-Standing Design, Perfect for Learning Centers! Reverse Side Features Questions, Labeling Exercises, Vocabulary Review & more!
Phone: 800-507-0966 Fax: 800-507-0967 www.newpathlearning.com NewPath Learning® products are developed by teachers using research-based principles and are classroom tested. The company’s product line consists of an array of proprietary curriculum review games, workbooks, posters and other print materials. All products are supplemented with web-based activities, assessments and content to provide an engaging means of educating students on key, curriculum-based topics correlated to applicable state and national education standards. Copyright © 2009 NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Curriculum Mastery® and NewPath Learning® are registered trademarks of NewPath Learning LLC. Science Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts provide comprehensive coverage of key standards-based curriculum in an illustrated format that is visually appealing, engaging and easy to use. Curriculum Mastery® Flip Charts can be used with the entire classroom, with small groups or by students working independently. Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart Set features 10 double-sided laminated charts covering grade-level specific curriculum content on one side plus write-on/wipe-off charts on reverse side for student use or for small-group instruction. Built-in sturdy free-standing easel for easy display Spiral bound for ease of use Activity Guide with black-line masters of the charts for students to fill-in, key vocabulary terms, corresponding quiz questions for each chart, along with answers Ideal for Learning centers In class instruction for interactive presentations and demonstrations Hands-on student use Stand alone reference for review of key science concepts Teaching resource to supplement any program HOW TO USE Classroom Use Each Curriculum Mastery® Flip Chart can be used to graphically introduce or review a topic of interest. Side 1 of each Flip Chart provides graphical representation of key concepts in a concise, grade appropriate reading level for instructing students. The reverse Side 2 of each Flip Chart allows teachers or students to fill in the call-outs of key structures and summarize key concepts. Note: Be sure to use an appropriate dry-erase marker and to test it on a small section of the chart prior to using it. The Activity Guide included provides a black-line master of each Flip Chart which students can use to fill in before, during, or after instruction. On the reverse side of each black-line master are questions corresponding to each Flip Chart topic which can be used as further review or as a means of assessment. While the activities in the guide can be used in conjunction with the Flip Charts, they can also be used individually for review or as a form of assessment or in conjunction with any other related assignment. Learning Centers Each Flip Chart provides students with a quick illustrated view of grade-appropriate curriculum concepts. Students may use these Flip Charts in small group settings along with the corresponding activity pages contained in the guide to learn or review concepts already covered in class. Students may also use these charts as reference while playing the NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Independent student use Students can use the hands-on Flip Charts to practice and learn independently by first studying Side 1 of the chart and then using Side 2 of the chart or the corresponding graphical activities contained in the guide to fill in the answers and assess their understanding. Reference/Teaching resource Curriculum Mastery® Charts are a great visual supplement to any curriculum or they can be used in conjunction with NewPath’s Curriculum Mastery® Games. Chart # 1: Chart # 2: Chart # 3: Chart # 4: Chart # 5: Chart # 6: Chart # 7: Chart # 8: Chart # 9: Chart #10: Minerals Rocks Fossils Geologic Time Scale Plate Tectonics Earthquakes Weathering of Rocks & Soil Formation Earth’s Atmosphere Understanding Weather Our Solar System
Identifying Minerals Uses of Minerals Mohs Hardness Scale What Is a Mineral? A mineral, by definition, must meet four criteria. It must be a naturally occurring, solid substance that has an internal crystal structure and is formed by inorganic processes. How Do Minerals Form? Minerals form in a wide variety of geologic environments. Some, like garnet, asbestos, talc and kyanite, form as a result of intense heat and pressure created during metamorphism. Some minerals form from hot-water solutions created when ground water is heated by magma. Dissolved metals and other elements in the hot liquid solution crystallize forming new minerals. Other minerals form from liquid rock (magma) as the magma cools. Yet another group of minerals forms as ocean water evaporates. talc gypsum calcite fluorite apatite feldspar quartz topaz corundum diamond 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Many of the commodities we consume and use every day are mined from rocks and minerals. For example, the element fluorine is used to make fluoride for toothpaste. Copper pipes and wires are made from the copper minerals malachite and cuprite. The steel used to make appliances and cars is a mixture of iron and other metals. Glass windows and drinking glasses are made from quartz sand. Gold is used in computers, cell phones and other electronic equipment. galena (with silver) Crystal System Every mineral forms a specific crystal shape. There are over 3,500 mineral species. All of these species belong to one of seven different crystal systems. The crystal systems are determined by the internal arrangement of the molecules in the mineral. Color Color is sometimes used to help identify a certain mineral. Streak Streak is the color of a mineral when it is crushed to a powder. This is found by rubbing the specimen on a piece of unglazed porcelain. Minerals with hardness greater than 7 do not leave a streak. Luster Luster is a description of how light reflects off of a mineral. Some of the luster descriptions are metallic, glassy (also called vitreous), earthy, adamantine (diamond-like), greasy and dull. Specific Gravity Specific gravity is a measure of the density of a mineral. The density is determined by comparing the mass of the mineral with the mass of an equal amount of water. Hardness A mineral’s hardness is determined by comparing the mineral to the known hardness of the minerals in the Mohs Hardness Scale. Cleavage & Fr acture Cleavage is a description of how a mineral breaks on flat planes. Fracture is a description of how a mineral breaks along curved or irregular surfaces. Special Properties There are also interesting physical properties that are unique to some minerals. For example, hematite always has a deep, blood red streak. Magnetite and lodestone are magnetic. diamond mica Minerals are identified based on their physical properties. gold crystals sulfur amethyst halite tourmaline copper talc a crystal structure (NaCl) magnetite same size - different densities As magma cools, ions in the magma combine to form specific minerals, such as topaz and tourmaline. Halite (rock salt) is the most common mineral formed by the evaporation of salt water. Gold and copper are formed from hot-water solutions. Talc is a mineral that can be found in metamorphic rock. Minerals © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4101 www.newpathlearning.com Some photos courtesy of USGS.
Identifying Minerals Uses of Minerals cleavage color crystal structure fracture hardness luster magma Mohs Hardness Scale specific gravity streak Key Vocabulary Terms What Is a Mineral? __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ How Do Minerals Form? __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ Mohs Hardness Scale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ Crystal System ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ Color _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Streak ____________________ ____________________ __________________________________ Luster _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Specific Gravity ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Hardness _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Cleavage & Fr acture _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Special Properties ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ Minerals are identified based on their physical properties. gold crystals magnetite same size - different densities galena (with silver) diamond mica sulfur Minerals © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4101 www.newpathlearning.com Some photos courtesy of USGS. \|xiBAHBDy01790lz[
sandstone (sedimentary) gneiss (metamorphic, foliated) quartzite (metamorphic, nonfoliated) granite (igneous) shale (sedimentary) slate (metamorphic, foliated) Foliated metamorphic rock is arranged in layers. Heat & Pr essure erosion compaction cementation Sedimentary Rocks sandstone conglomerate limestone shale coquina Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks are rocks that have been placed in layers by weathering or erosion. Over millions of years, these layers are compressed and cemented together. Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks form when liquid rock cools and hardens. Liquid rock that is under the crust is called magma. When it pours out onto the Earth’s surface, it is then called lava. Igneous rocks are classified by their origin, texture and composition. Intrusive igneous rocks originate from cooling magma, while extrusive rocks are made from cooling lava. Texture is related to how long it takes a rock to cool. Slow- cooling rocks form visible crystals, while fast-cooling rocks have small crystals that are not always visible. Dark igneous rocks, described as mafic, have a different composition than light igneous rocks, described as felsic. Granite is a light-colored intrusive rock with visible crystals. Pumice is a lightweight rock made from frothing lava and gases. It is the only rock that can float on water. Basalt forms much of the ocean’s crust. Obsidian is a dark, glassy igneous rock. There are three categories of sedimentary rocks. Clastic sedimentary rocks are composed of pieces of other pre-existing rock. These pre-existing rocks are weathered and transported by water and wind and are re-deposited elsewhere. The sediments accumulate and lithify (become solid rock). Chemical sedimentary rocks are sedimentary rocks that formed through chemical precipitation. Under ideal conditions, dissolved lime in ocean water precipitates out of the water and accumulates on the ocean floor which eventually lithifies into limestone. Biochemical or (organic) sedimentary rocks form when the shell remains of organisms collect on the ocean floor and lithify, becoming fossils and a layer of limestone. Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have changed as the result of intense heat and pressure deep in the Earth’s crust. Metamorphic rocks are classified as foliated and nonfoliated. Foliated metamorphic rocks such as gneiss, schist and slate have their mineral grains arranged in parallel layers. Nonfoliated metamorphic rocks such as marble and quartzite have their mineral grains arranged randomly. Rocks © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4102 www.newpathlearning.com Some photos courtesy of USGS. pumice obsidian granite basalt lava magma
Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary Rocks What are sedimentary rocks? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Igneous Rocks How do igneous rocks form? ________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ How are igneous rocks classified? ____________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Dark igneous rocks are referred to as __________________. Light colored igneous rocks are referred to as __________________________. There are three categories of sedimentary rocks. Clastic sedimentary rocks _______________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Chemical sedimentary rocks _____________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Biochemical or (organic) sedimentary rocks _______________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Metamorphic Rocks What are metamorphic rocks? _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ Metamorphic rocks are classified as ____________________________ and __________________________ __________________________. Foliated metamorphic rocks _________________________________ _________________________________ Nonfoliated metamorphic rocks _________________________________ _________________________________ Heat & Pr essure biochemical sedimentary rock chemical sedimentary rock clastic sedimentary rock erosion felsic foliated metamorphic rock igneous rock lava mafic magma metamorphic rock nonfoliated metamorphic rock sedimentary rock weathering Key Vocabulary Terms Rocks © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4102 www.newpathlearning.com Some photos courtesy of USGS. \|xiBAHBDy01793mzV
trace fossil carbon film petrified wood brachiopod mold insects in amber Types of Fossils There are a number of ways that fossils form. Fossils found in limestone are usually formed by a process called cast and mold. Petrified wood is formed by a process called petrification. The original wood fibers are slowly and completely replaced by mineral material, usually quartz (agate). Plant leaves and stems have been preserved by a process called carbonization. During this process the leaves and stems deteriorate but leave a film of carbon which preserves their form. Flies, dragonflies and other insects have been preserved in amber. Amber is hardened tree sap. Trace fossils, such as a preserved footprint, provide evidence of the activities and body characteristics of an ancient organism. wooly mammoth saber tooth tiger giant sloth How a Fossil Forms Fossils and Past Environments Fossils reveal information about past ecosystems, the variety of life forms in those ecosystems, the relationships of the organisms and more. Scientists who specialize in the fossilized remains of ancient life forms are called paleontologists. Collections of fossils from a particular rock formation give information about the environment in which the organisms lived. Fossils can help scientists understand ancient environmental factors such as temperature. Quite often fossils are strong evidence supporting the theory of plate tectonics and continental drift. What Is a Fossil? A fossil is any naturally preserved evidence of life which existed long ago. Fossils include pieces or the entire remains of organisms called body fossils. Fossils also include traces and marks left by organisms, such as footprints, called trace fossils. Most fossils form from organisms that once lived near bodies of water, such as ponds, lakes and shallow seas. Phase 1 Death After an organism dies, it slowly sinks to the sea floor. Phase 2 Deposition The skeleton gradually becomes covered with silt and sand (sediment). Phase 3 Petrification Over millions of years the original skeleton becomes petrified (rock-like). Phase 4 Erosion Millions of years later, the movement of the Earth’s plates forces the seabed to move above the surface. This layer is worn away by wind and rain, exposing the fossil. Some photos courtesy of USGS and NPS. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4103 www.newpathlearning.com Fossils
Types of Fossils Describe the following: Cast and mold: ____________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Petrification: _____________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Carbonization: ____________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Amber: __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Trace fossils: ______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ wooly mammoth saber tooth tiger giant sloth How a Fossil Forms Fossils and Past Environments Describe the information that can be revealed about past environments from fossils. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ What Is a Fossil? _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ Most fossils form from organisms that once lived near bodies of water, such as ponds, lakes and shallow seas. Phase 1 _____________________ Describe: __________________________ ___________________________________ Phase 3 _____________________ Describe: __________________________ ___________________________________ Phase 4 _____________________ Describe: __________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Key Vocabulary Terms amber body fossil carbon film carbonization cast and mold deposition erosion fossil paleontologists petrification trace fossil Phase 2 _____________________ Describe: __________________________ ___________________________________ © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4103 www.newpathlearning.com Fossils Some photos courtesy of USGS and NPS.
Era Period Lifeforms Millions of Years Ago Quaternary Tertiary Cretaceous Jurassic Triassic Permian Carboniferous Devonian Silurian Ordovician Cambrian Precambrian coral sponges jellyfish trilobite ammonite brachiopod squid jawless fish shark amphibian insects jawed fish allosaurus compsognathus brachiosaurus pterosaurus saber-tooth tiger rodent eohippus coryphodon wooly mammoth archaeopteryx The geologic time scale is a map that divides Earth’s history into logical segments of time. The oldest portion is at the bottom of the scale and the youngest is at the top of the scale. The divisions on the scale mark significant transitions in Earth’s history. Most often, these transitions represent important, and sometimes dramatic, changes in the life forms present on Earth and significant changes in geologic history. The geologic time scale is broken into divisions and subdivisions. The broadest divisions are called eons. Eons are divided into eras, eras are divided into periods and periods are divided into epochs. The Paleozoic Era The Paleozoic Era literally means “old life.” It lasted from 540 million years ago to 248 million years ago. At the beginning of the Paleozoic (the Cambrian Period), there were only simple life forms. By the end of the Paleozoic, amphibians crawled out of the water to venture onto land and insects were abundant. The middle of the Paleozoic marked the growth of land plants and trees. Of all the Eras, the Paleozoic Era contains the most extensive collection of fossils. The Paleozoic fossil record includes simple organisms such as algae, through marine invertebrates like brachiopods and corals, to early amphibians. This era ended with a mass extinction of over 90 percent of all species. This is known as the Permo-Triassic Extinction. The Mesozoic Era The Mesozoic Era literally means “middle life.” It lasted from 248 million years ago to 65 million years ago. This is the era that is most popularly known as “The age of the Reptiles.” Some even call it “The age of the Dinosaur.” It is during this era that life crawled out of the water and learned to live exclusively on land. Even though the reptiles were the most dominant of animals, early birds and small mammals also began to appear on the landscape. The end of the Mesozoic Era is marked by another mass extinction. It is estimated that about 50% of all species, including all of the dinosaurs, became extinct at the end of the Mesozoic Era. The Cenozoic Era The Cenozoic Era literally means “recent life.” It began 65 million years ago and continues to the present day. This era is most commonly referred to as the “Age of the Mammals.” The demise of the dinosaurs at the end of the Mesozoic Era allowed the growth and ultimately the dominance of mammals. The Cenozoic Era has also been marked by dramatic climatic changes that have allowed periods of glaciation followed by periods of melting and glacial retreat. 544 to 4.6 million years ago 144 208 286 360 408 438 505 544 66.4 245 1.8 to present © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4104 www.newpathlearning.com Geologic Time Scale
Era Lifeforms Period Millions of Years Ago 1.8 to present 544 to 4.6 million years ago Precambrian \|xiBAHBDy01789pzY What is a geologic time scale? __________________________________________________________________________________ The geologic time scale is broken into _________________________ and _________________________ . The broadest divisions are called _________________________ . Eons are divided into _________________________ , eras are divided into _________________________ and periods are divided into _________________________. The Paleozoic Era Describe: ___________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ The Mesozoic Era Describe: ___________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ The Cenozoic Era Describe: ___________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ Key Vocabulary Terms Cambrian Period Carboniferous Period Cenzoic Era Cretaceous Period Devonian Period division eon epoch era geologic time scale Jurassic Period Mesozoic Era Ordovician Period Paleozoic Era period Permian Period Quaternary Period Silurian Period subdivision Tertiary Period Triassic Period © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4104 www.newpathlearning.com Geologic Time Scale
Eurasian Plate North American Plate Eurasian Plate Arabian Plate African Plate South American Plate Pacific Plate Indian Plate Australian Plate Antarctic Plate Nazca Plate Cocos Plate Earth’s Crust Earth’s outermost layer is the crust. There are two different types of crust. Basaltic oceanic crust pours out from the mantle and is found under the oceans. It is the denser of the two types of crust, but it is also the thinner of the two. The second type of crust is continental crust. The crust moves over the Earth’s surface in large pieces called tectonic plates. Tectonic plates are constructed in layers with crust on the top and a piece of the solid upper mantle below. Geologists call this combination of crust and upper mantle the lithosphere. Tectonic Plate Boundaries The three types of plate boundaries - convergent , divergent and transform are found at the edge of the lithospheric plates and are characterized by their distinct motions. A divergent boundary, or spreading center At this boundary, two plates move away from one another. As the two plates move apart, mid-ocean ridges are created as magma from the mantle rises through a crack in the oceanic crust and cools. New oceanic crust is formed on both sides of the creack in the ocean floor. A convergent boundary or subduction zone At this boundary the plates converge or push into one another. The type of convergence that takes place between plates depends on the kind of lithosphere involved. Convergence can occur between an oceanic and a continental plate, or between two oceanic plates, or between two continental plates. A conservative or transform boundary This boundary is called conservative because plate material is neither created nor destroyed at these boundaries, but rather plates slide past each other horizontally. An example of a transform plate boundary is the San Andreas Fault in southern California. Tectonic Plates According to the theory of plate tectonics, scientists believe that the Earth's surface is broken into a number of shifting slabs or plates. These plates are in constant motion traveling a few centimeters per year. The edges of these plates, where they move against each other, are sites of intense geologic activity, such as earthquakes, volcanoes and mountain building. Major Tectonic Plates 1. Pacific plate 2. North American plate 3. Cocos plate 4. Nazca plate 5. South American plate 6. African plate 7. Eurasian plate 8. Indian plate 9. Australian plate 10. Antarctic plate volcanoes Continental crust Oceanic crust rift valley magma Lithosphere Convergent boundary Convergent boundary Transform boundary Divergent boundary Divergent boundary Lithosphere trench trench mid-ocean ridge Su bd uc tio n zo ne 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 7. 8. 9. 10 . Plate Tectonics © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4105 www.newpathlearning.com Subduction Zone Tr enc h Volcanic ar c Continental crust
Tr enc h Volcanic ar c volcanoes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 7. 8. 9. 10 . Tectonic Plate Boundaries There are three types of plate boundaries. 1. _________________________________ Describe: ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ 2. _________________________________ Describe: ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ Earth’s Crust Earth’s outermost layer is the _________________________. There are two different types of crust. ____________________________ pours out from the mantle and is found under the oceans. It is the denser of the two types of crust, but it is also the thinner of the two. The second type of crust is __________________________. The crust moves over the Earth’s surface in large pieces called ____________________________. Tectonic plates are constructed in layers with crust on the top and a piece of the solid upper mantle below. Geologists call this combination of crust and upper mantle the _____________________________. Tectonic Plates Describe the theory of plate tectonics: _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ Major Tectonic Plates 1. _____________________ 2. _____________________ 3. _____________________ 4. _____________________ 5. _____________________ 6. _____________________ 7. _____________________ 8. _____________________ 9. _____________________ 10. _____________________ Continental crust Oceanic crust rift valley magma Lithosphere Lithosphere trench trench mid-ocean ridge Su bd uc tio n zo ne 3. _________________________________ Describe: ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ Key Vocabulary Terms basaltic oceanic crust conservative continental crust continental plate convergent divergent Earth’s crust lithosphere oceanic plate spreading center subduction zone tectonic plates theory of plate tectonics transform \|xiBAHBDy01792pzY Plate Tectonics © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4105 www.newpathlearning.com
focus seismic waves epicenter epicenter hanging wall direction of wave direction of wave direction of wave footwall footwall hanging wall earthquake damage What are Earthquakes? The theory of plate tectonics describes the movement of the plates of the lithosphere relative to each other. This movement creates forces that push and pull on the crust. Crustal rock can absorb and store energy, but only so much. There is a point at which the stress is more than the rock can hold, and the rock breaks. When the rock breaks, the stored energy is released and this energy travels through the Earth. This sudden release of energy created when rocks break is called an earthquake. Types of Seismic Waves Seismic waves are the vibrations from earthquakes that travel through the Earth and are recorded on instruments called seismographs. There are three different types of seismic waves released by an earthquake. Kinds of Faults A fault is created when tension in Earth’s crust pulls the rock layers apart. Normal Fault A normal fault occurs when a hanging block moves down relative to the footwall. Reverse Fault When the hanging wall moves up relative to the footwall, a reverse fault is formed. Reverse faults are the result of compression (forces that push rocks together). Strike-slip Fault A strike-slip fault forms when rocks move past each other horizontally. The San Andreas Fault is an example of a strike-slip fault. P-waves or primary waves are the first energy waves released. They are the fastest of the seismic waves and can travel through solids, liquids and gases. Because they are the fastest seismic waves, they are the first waves to be measured by a seismograph. P-waves are pulse waves that move rock back and forth, first compressing then