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PA.3.Science and Technology and Engineering Education
Science and Technology and Engineering Education
3.1. Biological Sciences 3.1.A. Organisms and Cells 3.1.12.A1. Relate changes in the environment to various organisms' ability to compensate using homeostatic mechanisms.
3.1.12.A4. Explain how the cell cycle is regulated.
3.1.12.A5. Analyze how structure is related to function at all levels of biological organization from molecules to organisms.
3.1.12.A8. (CHANGE AND CONSTANCY) Describe and interpret dynamic changes in stable systems.
3.1.B. Genetics 3.1.12 B5. (PATTERNS) Relate the monomer structure of biomacromolecules to their functional roles.
3.1.12.B1. Explain gene inheritance and expression at the molecular level.
3.1.C. Evolution 3.1.12.C2. Analyze how genotypic and phenotypic variation can result in adaptations that influence an organism's success in an environment.
3.1.12.C3. (CONSTANCY AND CHANGE) Analyze the evidence to support various theories of evolution (gradualism, punctuated equilibrium). Evaluate survival of the fittest in terms of species that have remained unchanged over long periods of time.
3.2. Physical Sciences: Chemistry and Physics 3.2.A. Chemistry 3.2.12.A2a. Distinguish among the isotopic forms of elements.
3.2.12.A4a. Apply oxidation/reduction principles to electrochemical reactions.
3.2.12.A5b. (CONSTANCY AND CHANGE) Predict the shift in equilibrium when a system is subjected to a stress.
3.2.B. Physics 3.2.12.B3. Describe the relationship between the average kinetic molecular energy, temperature, and phase changes.
3.2.12.B6. (CONSTANCY/CHANGE) Compare and contrast motions of objects using forces and conservation laws.
3.3. Earth and Space Sciences 3.3.A. Earth Structure, Processes and Cycles 3.3.12.A1b. Analyze the processes that cause the movement of material in the Earth's systems.
3.3.12.A1c. Classify Earth's internal and external sources of energy such as radioactive decay, gravity, and solar energy.
3.3.12.A2b. Evaluate the impact of using renewable and nonrenewable energy resources on the Earth's system. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
3.3.12.A3. Describe the absolute and relative dating methods used to measure geologic time, such as index fossils, radioactive dating, law of superposition, and crosscutting relationships.
3.3.12.A4a. Classify Earth's internal and external sources of energy such as radioactive decay, gravity, and solar energy.
3.3.12.A6a. Explain how the unequal heating of the Earth's surface leads to atmospheric global circulation changes, climate, local short term changes, and weather. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
3.3.12.A7a. (MODELS) Interpret and analyze a combination of ground-based observations, satellite data, and computer models to demonstrate Earth systems and their interconnections.
3.3.12.A7b. (CONSTANCY/CHANGE) Infer how human activities may impact the natural course of Earth's cycles. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
3.3.12.A7c. (PATTERNS) Summarize the use of data in understanding seismic events, meteorology, and geologic time.
3.3.12.A8. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators.
3.3.B. Origin and Evolution of the Universe 3.3.12.B1b. Analyze the influence of gravity on the formation and life cycles of galaxies, including our own Milky Way galaxy; stars; planetary systems; and residual material left from the creation of the solar system.
3.3.12.B2a. (MODELS AND SCALE) Apply mathematical models and computer simulations to study evidence collected relating to the extent and composition of the universe.
3.3.12.B2b. (PATTERNS AND CONSTANCY AND CHANGE) Analyze the evidence supporting theories of the origin of the universe to predict its future.
3.3.12.B3. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators.
PA.4.Environment and Ecology
4.1. Ecology 4.1.12.A. Analyze the significance of biological diversity in an ecosystem. 4.1.12.A.1. Explain how species adapt to limiting factors in an ecosystem.
4.1.12.C. Research how humans affect energy flow within an ecosystem. 4.1.12.C.1. Describe the impact of industrial, agricultural, and commercial enterprises on an ecosystem. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
4.1.12.F. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators.
4.2. Watersheds and Wetlands 4.2.12.C. Analyze the effects of policies and regulations at various governmental levels on water quality. 4.2.12.C.1. Assess the intended and unintended effects of public polices and regulations relating to water quality. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
4.2.12.D. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators
4.3. Natural Resources 4.3.12.C. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators.
4.4. Agriculture and Society 4.4.12.E. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators.
4.5. Humans and the Environment 4.5.12.E. Analyze how consumer demands promote the production of pollutants that affect human health. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
4.5.12.F. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators
PA.B.Biology - Science and Technology and Engineering Education
Biology - Science and Technology and Engineering Education
3.1. Biological Sciences 3.1.A. Organisms and Cells 3.1.B.A1c. Explain that some structures in eukaryotic cells developed from early prokaryotic cells (e.g., mitochondria, chloroplasts)
3.1.B.A2a. Identify the initial reactants, final products, and general purposes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
3.1.B.A2c. Describe the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration in photosynthetic organisms.
3.1.B.A4a. Summarize the stages of the cell cycle.
3.1.B.A4b. Examine how interactions among the different molecules in the cell cause the distinct stages of the cell cycle which can also be influenced by other signaling molecules.
3.1.B.A4c. Explain the role of mitosis in the formation of new cells and its importance in maintaining chromosome number during asexual reproduction.
3.1.B.A5a. Relate the structure of cell organelles to their function (energy capture and release, transport, waste removal, protein synthesis, movement, etc).
3.1.B.A5c. Explain how the cell membrane functions as a regulatory structure and protective barrier for the cell.
3.1.B.A8a. (CHANGE AND CONSTANCY) Recognize that systems within cells and multicellular organisms interact to maintain homeostasis.
3.1.B. Genetics 3.1.B.B1a. Explain that the information passed from parents to offspring is transmitted by means of genes which are coded in DNA molecules.
3.1.B.B1b. Explain the basic process of DNA replication.
3.1.B.B1c. Describe the basic processes of transcription and translation.
3.1.B.B1d. Explain how crossing over, jumping genes, and deletion and duplication of genes results in genetic variation.
3.1.B.B1e. Explain how mutations can alter genetic information and the possible consequences on resultant cells.
3.1.B.B2a. Describe how the process of meiosis results in the formation of haploid gametes and analyze the importance of meiosis in sexual reproduction.
3.1.B.B2b. Compare and contrast the function of mitosis and meiosis.
3.1.B.B3a. Describe the basic structure of DNA, including the role of hydrogen bonding.
3.1.B.B3b. Explain how the process of DNA replication results in the transmission and conservation of the genetic code.
3.1.B.B3c. Describe how transcription and translation result in gene expression.
3.1.B.B3d. Differentiate among the end products of replication, transcription, and translation.
3.1.B.B3e. Cite evidence to support that the genetic code is universal.
3.1.B.B4. Explain how genetic technologies have impacted the fields of medicine, forensics, and agriculture
3.1.B.B5c. (CONSTANCY AND CHANGE) Explain how the processes of replication, transcription, and translation are similar in all organisms.
3.1.B.B5d. (CONSTANCY AND CHANGE) Explain how gene actions, patterns of heredity, and reproduction of cells and organisms account for the continuity of life.
3.1.B.B5e. (SCALE) Demonstrate how inherited characteristics can be observed at the molecular, cellular, and organism levels.
3.1.C. Evolution 3.1.B.C1b. Analyze the role that geographic isolation can play in speciation.
3.1.B.C1c. Explain how evolution through natural selection can result in changes in biodiversity through the increase or decrease of genetic diversity within a population.
3.1.B.C2c. Describe how mutations in sex cells may be passed on to successive generations and that the resulting phenotype may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring's success in its environment.
3.1.B.C3a. (CONSTANCY AND CHANGE) Compare and contrast various theories of evolution.
3.1.B.C4. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators.
3.3. Earth and Space Sciences 3.3.A. Earth Structure, Processes and Cycles 3.3.B.A8. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators.
3.3.B. Origin and Evolution of the Universe 3.3.B.B3. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators.
PA.C.Chemistry - Science and Technology and Engineering Education
Chemistry - Science and Technology and Engineering Education
3.1. Biological Sciences 3.1.A. Organisms and Cells 3.1.C.A2. Describe how changes in energy affect the rate of chemical reactions.
3.1.C.A4. Relate mitosis and meiosis at the molecular level.
3.1.C.A7. Illustrate the formation of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
3.1.B. Genetics 3.1.C.B3. Describe the structure of the DNA and RNA molecules.
3.1.C. Evolution 3.1.C.C2. Use molecular models to demonstrate gene mutation and recombination at the molecular level.
3.2. Physical Sciences: Chemistry and Physics 3.2.A. Chemistry 3.2.C.A1a. Differentiate between physical properties and chemical properties.
3.2.C.A1b. Differentiate between pure substances and mixtures; differentiate between heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures.
3.2.C.A1c. Explain the relationship of an element's position on the periodic table to its atomic number, ionization energy, electro-negativity, atomic size, and classification of elements.
3.2.C.A2a. Compare the electron configurations for the first twenty elements of the periodic table.
3.2.C.A2b. Relate the position of an element on the periodic table to its electron configuration and compare its reactivity to the reactivity of other elements in the table.
3.2.C.A2c. Explain how atoms combine to form compounds through both ionic and covalent bonding. Predict chemical formulas based on the number of valence electrons.
3.2.C.A2e. Predict the chemical formulas for simple ionic and molecular compounds.
3.2.C.A2g. Determine percent compositions, empirical formulas, and molecular formulas.
3.2.C.A3a. Describe the three normal states of matter in terms of energy, particle motion, and phase transitions.
3.2.C.A4a. Predict how combinations of substances can result in physical and/or chemical changes.
3.2.C.A4b. Interpret and apply the laws of conservation of mass, constant composition (definite proportions), and multiple proportions.
3.2.C.A4c. Balance chemical equations by applying the laws of conservation of mass.
3.2.C.A4d. Classify chemical reactions as synthesis (combination), decomposition, single displacement (replacement), double displacement, and combustion.
3.2.B. Physics 3.2.C.B2. Explore the natural tendency for systems to move in a direction of disorder or randomness (entropy).
3.2.C.B3b. Explain the difference between an endothermic process and an exothermic process.
3.3. Earth and Space Sciences 3.3.A. Earth Structure, Processes and Cycles 3.3.C.A8. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators.
3.3.B. Origin and Evolution of the Universe 3.3.C.B3. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators.
PA.P.Physics - Science and Technology and Engineering Education
Physics - Science and Technology and Engineering Education
3.2. Physical Sciences: Chemistry and Physics 3.2.B. Physics 3.2.P.B1a. Differentiate among translational motion, simple harmonic motion, and rotational motion in terms of position, velocity, and acceleration.
3.2.P.B1b. Use force and mass to explain translational motion or simple harmonic motion of objects.
3.2.P.B1c. Relate torque and rotational inertia to explain rotational motion.
3.2.P.B2a. Explain the translation and simple harmonic motion of objects using conservation of energy and conservation of momentum.
3.2.P.B2b. Describe the rotational motion of objects using the conservation of energy and conservation of angular momentum.
3.2.P.B4b. Develop qualitative and quantitative understanding of current, voltage, resistance, and the connections among them.
3.2.P.B5a. Explain how waves transfer energy without transferring matter.
3.2.P.B5c. Describe the causes of wave frequency, speed, and wave length.
3.2.P.B6. (PATTERNS SCALE MODELS CONSTANCY/CHANGE) Use Newton's laws of motion and gravitation to describe and predict the motion of objects ranging from atoms to the galaxies.
3.3. Earth and Space Sciences 3.3.A. Earth Structure, Processes and Cycles 3.3.P.A8. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators.
3.3.B. Origin and Evolution of the Universe 3.3.P.B3. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators.