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NJ.5.2.6.Physical Science: Physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science.
Physical Science: Physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science.
5.2.6.A. Properties of Matter: All objects and substances in the natural world are composed of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space, and matter has inertia. Pure substances have characteristic intrinsic properties, such as density, solubility, boiling point, and melting point, all of which are independent of the amount of the sample. 5.2.6.A.3. Determine the identity of an unknown substance using data about intrinsic properties.
The density of an object can be determined from its volume and mass. 5.2.6.A.2. Calculate the density of objects or substances after determining volume and mass.
5.2.6.B. Changes in Matter: Substances can undergo physical or chemical changes to form new substances. Each change involves energy. When a new substance is made by combining two or more substances, it has properties that are different from the original substances. 5.2.6.B.1. Compare the properties of reactants with the properties of the products when two or more substances are combined and react chemically.
5.2.6.C. Forms of Energy: Knowing the characteristics of familiar forms of energy, including potential and kinetic energy, is useful in coming to the understanding that, for the most part, the natural world can be explained and is predictable. The transfer of thermal energy by conduction, convection, and radiation can produce large-scale events such as those seen in weather. 5.2.6.C.3. Relate the transfer of heat from oceans and land masses to the evolution of a hurricane.
Light travels in a straight line until it interacts with an object or material. Light can be absorbed, redirected, bounced back, or allowed to pass through. The path of reflected or refracted light can be predicted. 5.2.6.C.1. Predict the path of reflected or refracted light using reflecting and refracting telescopes as examples.
5.2.6.D. Energy Transfer and Conservation: The conservation of energy can be demonstrated by keeping track of familiar forms of energy as they are transferred from one object to another. The flow of current in an electric circuit depends upon the components of the circuit and their arrangement, such as in series or parallel. Electricity flowing through an electrical circuit produces magnetic effects in the wires. 5.2.6.D.1. Use simple circuits involving batteries and motors to compare and predict the current flow with different circuit arrangements. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Electricity
5.2.6.E. Forces and Motion: It takes energy to change the motion of objects. The energy change is understood in terms of forces. Sinking and floating can be predicted using forces that depend on the relative densities of objects and materials. 5.2.6.E.4. Predict if an object will sink or float using evidence and reasoning.
Friction is a force that acts to slow or stop the motion of objects. 5.2.6.E.3. Demonstrate and explain the frictional force acting on an object with the use of a physical model. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Forces Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Forces
NJ.5.3.6.Life Science: Life science principles are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of the complexity, diversity, and interconnectedness of life on Earth. Order in natural systems arises in accordance with rules that govern the physical world, and the order of natural systems can be modeled and predicted through the use of mathematics.
Life Science: Life science principles are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of the complexity, diversity, and interconnectedness of life on Earth. Order in natural systems arises in accordance with rules that govern the physical world, and the order of natural systems can be modeled and predicted through the use of mathematics.
5.3.6.A. Organization and Development: Living organisms are composed of cellular units (structures) that carry out functions required for life. Cellular units are composed of molecules, which also carry out biological functions. Essential functions of plant and animal cells are carried out by organelles. 5.3.6.A.2. Model and explain ways in which organelles work together to meet the cell's needs.
Systems of the human body are interrelated and regulate the body’s internal environment. 5.3.6.A.1. Model the interdependence of the human body's major systems in regulating its internal environment.
5.3.6.B. Matter and Energy Transformations: Food is required for energy and building cellular materials. Organisms in an ecosystem have different ways of obtaining food, and some organisms obtain their food directly from other organisms. All animals, including humans, are consumers that meet their energy needs by eating other organisms or their products. 5.3.6.B.2. Illustrate the flow of energy (food) through a community.
Plants are producers: They use the energy from light to make food (sugar) from carbon dioxide and water. Plants are used as a source of food (energy) for other organisms. 5.3.6.B.1. Describe the sources of the reactants of photosynthesis and trace the pathway to the products.
5.3.6.C. Interdependence: All animals and most plants depend on both other organisms and their environment to meet their basic needs. If this change reduces another organism’s access to resources, that organism may move to another location or die. 5.3.6.C.3. Describe how one population of organisms may affect other plants and/or animals in an ecosystem.
Various human activities have changed the capacity of the environment to support some life forms. 5.3.6.C.1. Explain the impact of meeting human needs and wants on local and global environments.
The number of organisms and populations an ecosystem can support depends on the biotic resources available and on abiotic factors, such as quantities of light and water, range of temperatures, and soil composition. 5.3.6.C.2. Predict the impact that altering biotic and abiotic factors has on an ecosystem.
5.3.6.D. Heredity and Reproduction: Organisms reproduce, develop, and have predictable life cycles. Organisms contain genetic information that influences their traits, and they pass this on to their offspring during reproduction. Reproduction is essential to the continuation of every species. 5.3.6.D.1. Predict the long-term effect of interference with normal patterns of reproduction.
Traits such as eye color in human beings or fruit/flower color in plants are inherited. 5.3.6.D.3. Distinguish between inherited and acquired traits/characteristics.
5.3.6.E. Evolution and Diversity: Sometimes, differences between organisms of the same kind provide advantages for surviving and reproducing in different environments. These selective differences may lead to dramatic changes in characteristics of organisms in a population over extremely long periods of time. Changes in environmental conditions can affect the survival of individual organisms and entire species. 5.3.6.E.1. Describe the impact on the survival of species during specific times in geologic history when environmental conditions changed.
NJ.5.4.6.Earth Systems Science: Earth operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and interconnected systems, and is a part of the all-encompassing system of the universe.
Earth Systems Science: Earth operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and interconnected systems, and is a part of the all-encompassing system of the universe.
5.4.6.A. Objects in the Universe: Our universe has been expanding and evolving for 13.7 billion years under the influence of gravitational and nuclear forces. As gravity governs its expansion, organizational patterns, and the movement of celestial bodies, nuclear forces within stars govern its evolution through the processes of stellar birth and death. These same processes governed the formation of our solar system 4.6 billion years ago. The Sun is the central and most massive body in our solar system, which includes eight planets and their moons, dwarf planets, asteroids, and comets. 5.4.6.A.4. Compare and contrast the major physical characteristics (including size and scale) of solar system objects using evidence in the form of data tables and photographs.
The Sun’s gravity holds planets and other objects in the solar system in orbit, and planets’ gravity holds moons in orbit. 5.4.6.A.3. Predict what would happen to an orbiting object if gravity were increased, decreased, or taken away.
Earth’s position relative to the Sun, and the rotation of Earth on its axis, result in patterns and cycles that define time units of days and years. 5.4.6.A.2. Construct and evaluate models demonstrating the rotation of Earth on its axis and the orbit of Earth around the Sun.
The height of the path of the Sun in the sky and the length of a shadow change over the course of a year. 5.4.6.A.1. Generate and analyze evidence (through simulations) that the Sun's apparent motion across the sky changes over the course of a year.
5.4.6.B. History of Earth: From the time that Earth formed from a nebula 4.6 billion years ago, it has been evolving as a result of geologic, biological, physical, and chemical processes. Erosion plays an important role in the formation of soil, but too much erosion can wash away fertile soil from ecosystems, including farms. 5.4.6.B.4. Describe methods people use to reduce soil erosion.
Moving water, wind, and ice continually shape Earth’s surface by eroding rock and soil in some areas and depositing them in other areas. 5.4.6.B.3. Determine if landforms were created by processes of erosion (e.g., wind, water, and/or ice) based on evidence in pictures, video, and/or maps. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Rocks Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Rocks
Earth’s current structure has been influenced by both sporadic and gradual events. Changes caused by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions can be observed on a human time scale, but many geological processes, such as mountain building and the shifting of continents, are observed on a geologic time scale. 5.4.6.B.2. Examine Earth's surface features and identify those created on a scale of human life or on a geologic time scale.
Successive layers of sedimentary rock and the fossils contained in them tell the factual story of the age, history, changing life forms, and geology of Earth. 5.4.6.B.1. Interpret a representation of a rock layer sequence to establish oldest and youngest layers, geologic events, and changing life forms. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Fossils Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Fossils
5.4.6.C. Properties of Earth Materials: Earth's composition is unique, is related to the origin of our solar system, and provides us with the raw resources needed to sustain life. Rocks and rock formations contain evidence that tell a story about their past. The story is dependent on the minerals, materials, tectonic conditions, and erosion forces that created them. 5.4.6.C.3. Deduce the story of the tectonic conditions and erosion forces that created sample rocks or rock formations. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Rocks Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Rocks
The rock cycle is a model of creation and transformation of rocks from one form (sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic) to another. Rock families are determined by the origin and transformations of the rock. 5.4.6.C.2. Distinguish physical properties of sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic rocks and explain how one kind of rock could eventually become a different kind of rock. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Rocks Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Rocks
Soil attributes/properties affect the soil’s ability to support animal life and grow plants. 5.4.6.C.1. Predict the types of ecosystems that unknown soil samples could support based on soil properties.
5.4.6.D. Tectonics: The theory of plate tectonics provides a framework for understanding the dynamic processes within and on Earth. Earth has a magnetic field that is detectable at the surface with a compass. 5.4.6.D.3. Apply knowledge of Earth's magnetic fields to successfully complete an orienteering challenge.
Earth’s landforms are created through constructive (deposition) and destructive (erosion) processes. 5.4.6.D.2. Locate areas that are being created (deposition) and destroyed (erosion) using maps and satellite images. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Rocks Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Rocks
Lithospheric plates consisting of continents and ocean floors move in response to movements in the mantle. 5.4.6.D.1. Apply understanding of the motion of lithospheric plates to explain why the Pacific Rim is referred to as the Ring of Fire. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Volcanoes
5.4.6.E. Energy in Earth Systems: Internal and external sources of energy drive Earth systems. The Sun is the major source of energy for circulating the atmosphere and oceans. 5.4.6.E.1. Generate a conclusion about energy transfer and circulation by observing a model of convection currents.
5.4.6.F. Climate and Weather: Earth's weather and climate systems are the result of complex interactions between land, ocean, ice, and atmosphere. Climate is the result of long-term patterns of temperature and precipitation. 5.4.6.F.2. Create climatographs for various locations around Earth and categorize the climate based on the yearly patterns of temperature and precipitation. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Climate
Weather is the result of short-term variations in temperature, humidity, and air pressure. 5.4.6.F.1. Explain the interrelationships between daily temperature, air pressure, and relative humidity data.
5.4.6.G. Biogeochemical Cycles: The biogeochemical cycles in the Earth systems include the flow of microscopic and macroscopic resources from one reservoir in the hydrosphere, geosphere, atmosphere, or biosphere to another, are driven by Earth's internal and external sources of energy, and are impacted by human activity. An ecosystem includes all of the plant and animal populations and nonliving resources in a given area. Organisms interact with each other and with other components of an ecosystem. 5.4.6.G.2. Create a model of ecosystems in two different locations, and compare and contrast the living and nonliving components.
Circulation of water in marine environments is dependent on factors such as the composition of water masses and energy from the Sun or wind. 5.4.6.G.1. Illustrate global winds and surface currents through the creation of a world map of global winds and currents that explains the relationship between the two factors.
NJ.CC.6-8.RST.Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 6-8.RST.7. Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table).
6-8.RST.9. Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.
Craft and Structure 6-8.RST.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6-8 texts and topics.
NJ.CC.6-8.WHST.Writing Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Writing Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Research to Build and Present Knowledge 6-8.WHST.7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
Text Types and Purposes 6-8.WHST.2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. 6-8.WHST.2.d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
6-8.WHST.2.f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.