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CC.RST.11-12.Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas RST.11-12.8. Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information, including those from American Indians.
RST.11-12.9. Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations, and knowledge derived from American Indian cultures) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.
Craft and Structure RST.11-12.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11–12 texts and topics.
CC.WHST.11-12.Writing Standards for Literacy in Science, and Technical Subjects
Writing Standards for Literacy in Science, and Technical Subjects
Research to Build and Present Knowledge WHST.11-12.7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
Production and Distribution of Writing WHST.11-12.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Text Types and Purposes WHST.11-12.2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. WHST.11-12.2.a. Introduce a topic and organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
WHST.11-12.2.b. Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
WHST.11-12.2.c. Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
WHST.11-12.2.d. Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic; convey a knowledgeable stance in a style that responds to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
WHST.11-12.2.e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation provided (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
MT.S1.Students, through the inquiry process, demonstrate the ability to design, conduct, evaluate, and communicate results and reasonable conclusions of scientific investigations.
Students, through the inquiry process, demonstrate the ability to design, conduct, evaluate, and communicate results and reasonable conclusions of scientific investigations.
S1.1. Generate a question, identify dependent and independent variables, formulate testable, multiple hypotheses, plan an investigation, predict its outcome, safely conduct the scientific investigations, and collect and analyze the data. S1.1.gr9-12.A. Identify the various applications of scientific investigations (explore new phenomena, check on previous results, to test how well a hypothesis predicts, and to compare hypotheses)
S1.1.gr9-12.L. Identify the appropriate safety practices for an investigation
S1.2. Select and use appropriate tools including technology to make measurements (in metric units), gather, process and analyze data from scientific investigations using appropriate mathematical analysis, error analysis, and graphical representation S1.2.gr9-12.A. Design data tables/setup and show an organizational strategy
S1.2.gr9-12.B. Gather data (qualitative/quantitative) using appropriate measurements and methods
S1.2.gr9-12.C. Apply the metric system by appropriate use of units and conversion factors
S1.2.gr9-12.D. Apply appropriate mathematical analysis
S1.2.gr9-12.G. Identify and interpret trends in data using graphical analysis
S1.3. Review evidence, communicate and defend results, and recognize that the results of a scientific investigation are always open to revision by further investigations. (e.g. through graphical representation or charts) S1.3.gr9-12.A. Identify techniques used to review evidence (summary, graphical organizers, models)
S1.3.gr9-12.B. Identify relationship between data trends and scientific concepts
S1.3.gr9-12.F. Explain why conclusions based on evidence are open to revision upon further investigation
S1.4. Analyze observations and explain with scientific understanding to develop a plausible model (e.g., atom, expanding universe) S1.4.gr9-12.A. Identify that various types of models (physical, mental, graphical, and mathematical) can be used to illustrate scientific concepts
S1.4.gr9-12.B. Explain why models are used to express scientific concepts
S1.4.gr9-12.C. Use models to investigate and represent scientific concepts
S1.6. Explain how observations of nature form an essential base of knowledge among the Montana American Indians S1.6.gr9-12.A. Explain how observations of nature form and essential base of knowledge
MT.S2.Students, through the inquiry process, demonstrate knowledge of properties, forms, changes and interactions of physical and chemical systems.
Students, through the inquiry process, demonstrate knowledge of properties, forms, changes and interactions of physical and chemical systems.
S2.1. Describe the structure of atoms, including knowledge of (a) subatomic particles and their relative masses, charges, and locations within the atom, (b) the electrical and nuclear forces that hold the atom together, (c) fission and fusion, and (d) radioactive decay S2.1.gr9-12.A. Compare and contrast subatomic particles in relation to their relative masses, charges and location
S2.1.gr9-12.B. Compare and contrast the number of subatomic particles in different elements and their isotopes
S2.1.gr9-12.C. Recognize there is an electrical force of attraction/repulsion
S2.2. Explain how the particulate level structure and properties of matter affect its macroscopic properties, including the effect of (a) valence electrons on the chemical properties of elements and the resulting periodic trends in these properties, (b) chemical bonding,(c) molecular geometry and intermolecular forces, (d) kinetic molecular theory on phases of matter, and (e) carbon-carbon atom bonding on biomolecules S2.2.gr9-12.A. Recognize the Periodic Table is organized based on a series of repeating patterns
S2.2.gr9-12.B. Utilize the periodic Table to determine the number of valence electrons of an element
S2.2.gr9-12.C. Utilize the Periodic Table to predict, from neutral atoms, the formation of ions with the number of electrons gained or lost
S2.2.gr9-12.D. Recognize that chemical properties of electrons change with the number of valence electrons
S2.2.gr9-12.E. Compare and contrast ionic, covalent and hydrogen bonds
S2.2.gr9-12.F. Describe the significance of electrons in interactions between atoms and why they sometimes form bonds
S2.2.gr9-12.G. Explain how the chemical bonding of a molecule affects its macroscopic (physical) properties
S2.2.gr9-12.H. Explain how the molecular geometry of a molecule (e.g. water) affects polarity and cohesive/adhesive properties
S2.2.gr9-12.I. Describe the physical properties of each state of matter: solid, liquid, and gas
S2.2.gr9-12.J. Describe, using the kinetic molecular theory, the behavior of particles in each state of matter: solid, liquid, and gas
S2.2.gr9-12.L. Explain how electrons are shared in single, double, triple bonds
S2.2.gr9-12.M. Explain how the variety of carbon-carbon bonds leads to the diversity of biomolecules
S2.3. Describe the major features associated with chemical reactions, including (a) giving examples of reactions important to industry and living organisms, (b) energy changes associated with chemical changes, (c) classes of chemical reactions, (d) rates of reactions, and (e) the role of catalysts S2.3.gr9-12.A. Provide evidence that a chemical change has occurred
S2.3.gr9-12.B. Illustrate a chemical reaction using chemical formulas
S2.3.gr9-12.C. Describe properties of chemical reaction classes (combustion, decomposition, synthesis, single-replacement, and double-replacement, etc.)
S2.3.gr9-12.D. Describe the energy changes in exothermic and endothermic reactions.
S2.3.gr9-12.E. Describe factors that effect the rate of reactions
S2.3.gr9-12.F. Give examples of chemical reactions important to industry and living organisms
S2.4. Identify, measure, calculate, and analyze relationships associated with matter and energy transfer or transformations, and the associated conservation of mass S2.4.gr9-12.B. Measure and/or calculate energy transfer for a sample set of data or experiment
S2.4.gr9-12.C. Analyze the relationship between energy transfer and physical properties of matter
S2.5. Explain the interactions between motions and forces, including (a) the laws of motion and (b) an understanding of the gravitational and electromagnetic forces S2.5.gr9-12.A. Explain, given F = ma, the relationship between force and acceleration in uniform motion
S2.5.gr9-12.B. Solve simple kinematics problems using the kinematics equations for uniform acceleration: v(avg) = d/t, a = v/t, and d = 1/2 at^2
S2.5.gr9-12.D. List examples of different types of forces
S2.5.gr9-12.E. Describe the role of friction in motion
S2.5.gr9-12.F. Describe situations that illustrate Newton's three laws of motion
S2.6. Explain how energy is stored, transferred, and transformed, including (a) the conservation of energy, (b) kinetic and potential energy and energy contained by a field, (c) heat energy and atomic and molecular motion, and (d) energy tends to change from concentrated to diffuse S2.6.gr9-12.A. Describe the differences between kinetic energy and potential energy Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Heat
S2.6.gr9-12.B. Explain the relationship between kinetic energy and potential energy in a system Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Heat
S2.6.gr9-12.C. Discuss the conservation of energy
S2.6.gr9-12.D. Recognize heat as a form of energy transfer
S2.6.gr9-12.E. F. Explain the relationship between temperature, heat and thermal energy Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Gases Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Heat
S2.6.gr9-12.F. Define the kinetic molecular theory and its relationship to heat (thermal energy transfer).
S2.6.gr9-12.G. Relate how energy tends to change from concentrated to diffuse states.
S2.7. Describe how energy and matter interact, including (a) waves, (b) the electromagnetic spectrum, (c) quantization of energy, and (d) insulators and conductors S2.7.gr9-12.A. Identify and illustrate different types of waves Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
S2.7.gr9-12.B. Compare and contrast the similarities and differences between longitudinal and transverse mechanical waves
S2.7.gr9-12.C. Explain how waves interact with media.
S2.7.gr9-12.D. Compare the various electromagnetic waves (gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave, and radio waves) in terms of energy and wavelength
S2.7.gr9-12.E. Identify practical uses of various electromagnetic waves
S2.7.gr9-12.G. Recognize that atoms and molecules can gain or lose energy only in particular discrete amounts.
S2.7.gr9-12.H. Recognize that every substance emits and absorbs certain wavelengths
S2.7.gr9-12.I. Explain how electromagnetic waves are superposed, bent, reflected, refracted, and absorbed.
S2.7.gr9-12.J. Describe the difference between an electrical conductor and an electrical insulator
S2.7.gr9-12.K. Describe the difference between a heat conductor and a heat insulator
S2.7.gr9-12.L. Explain how electricity is involved in the transfer of energy
MT.S3.Students, through the inquiry process, demonstrate knowledge of characteristics, structures and function of living things, the process and diversity of life, and how living organisms interact with each other and their environment.
Students, through the inquiry process, demonstrate knowledge of characteristics, structures and function of living things, the process and diversity of life, and how living organisms interact with each other and their environment.
S3.1. Investigate and use appropriate technology to demonstrate that cells have common features including differences that determine function and that they are composed of common building blocks (e.g., proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids) S3.1.gr9-12.A. Demonstrate appropriate microscopic techniques
S3.1.gr9-12.B. Recognize that a variety of microscopes exist
S3.1.gr9-12.C. Identify common features among all cells
S3.1.gr9-12.D. Compare and contrast prokaryotes and eukaryotes
S3.1.gr9-12.E. Compare and contrast the structure, function and relationship of key cellular components
S3.1.gr9-12.F. Identify key differences between plant and animal cells
S3.1.gr9-12.G. Explain how concentration of substances affects diffusion and osmosis
S3.1.gr9-12.H. Explain the role of key biologically important macromolecules
S3.2. Describe and explain the complex processes involved in energy use in cell maintenance, growth, repair and development S3.2.gr9-12.B. Identify processes that maintain homeostasis
S3.2.gr9-12.C. Classify, compare and contrast various organisms as a heterotroph or autotroph
S3.2.gr9-12.D. Describe the role of ATP in the body
S3.2.gr9-12.E. Identify the key components involved in the chemical reaction of cellular respiration
S3.2.gr9-12.F. Describe and model the conversion of stored energy in organic molecules into usable cellular energy (ATP)
S3.2.gr9-12.G. Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration
S3.2.gr9-12.H. Summarize the conversion of light energy to chemical energy by photosynthetic organisms
S3.2.gr9-12.I. Explain the relationship between the products and reactants of photosynthesis and cellular respiration
S3.2.gr9-12.J. Explain the purpose of the cell cycle
S3.2.gr9-12.K. Describe the stages of mitosis in plants and animals
S3.2.gr9-12.L. Identify the major events that occur in meiosis
S3.2.gr9-12.M. Differentiate between haploid and diploid chromosome numbers
S3.2.gr9-12.N. Compare and contrast the process and purpose of mitosis and meiosis
S3.3. Model the structure of DNA and protein synthesis, discuss the molecular basis of heredity, and explain how it contributes to the diversity of life S3.3.gr9-12.A. Explain the functions of DNA and RNA
S3.3.gr9-12.B. Compare and contrast the structure of DNA and RNA
S3.3.gr9-12.C. Identify complementary base pairs
S3.3.gr9-12.D. Explain the purpose and process of DNA replication
S3.3.gr9-12.E. Explain the purpose and process of transcription and translation
S3.3.gr9-12.F. Explain the relationship between DNA and heredity (Central Dogma)
S3.3.gr9-12.H. Summarize how the process of meiosis produces genetic recombination
S3.3.gr9-12.I. Explain the difference between dominant and recessive alleles
S3.3.gr9-12.J. Distinguish between genotype and phenotype
S3.3.gr9-12.K. Use the law of probability and Punnett squares to predict genotypic and phenotypic ratios
S3.3.gr9-12.L. Identify and explain the different ways in which alleles interact to determine the expression of traits
S3.3.gr9-12.M. Distinguish between sex chromosomes and autostomes
S3.3.gr9-12.O. Define genetic mutations
S3.3.gr9-12.P. Identify some of the major causes of mutations
S3.3.gr9-12.Q. Explain how mutations influence genetic expression
S3.3.gr9-12.R. Explain the results of nondisjunction
S3.4. Predict and model the interaction of biotic and abiotic factors that affect populations through natural selection, and explain how this contributes to the evolution of species over time S3.4.gr9-12.C. Explain biogeochemical cycles
S3.4.gr9-12.D. Recognize that the sun is the ultimate source of energy in MOST ecosystems
S3.4.gr9-12.E. Explain the difference between a food chain and food web.
S3.4.gr9-12.F. Explain trophic levels and pyramids in terms of energy transfer, biomass and number of individuals
S3.4.gr9-12.H. Describe predator-prey dynamics
S3.4.gr9-12.I. Compare and contrast the symbiotic relationships that exist between species
S3.4.gr9-12.K. Recognize that evolution involves a change in allele frequencies in a population across successive generations
S3.4.gr9-12.L. Model and explain how natural selection can change a population
S3.4.gr9-12.N. Explain the theory of evolution by natural selection
S3.4.gr9-12.O. Explain the multiple lines of supporting scientific evidence of biological evolution
S3.5. Generate and apply biological classification schemes to infer and discuss the degree of divergence between ecosystems S3.5.gr9-12.A. List and explain the characteristics of the three domains
S3.5.gr9-12.B. Compare and contrast the key characteristics of each kingdom
S3.5.gr9-12.C. Explain how similarities and differences in the key characteristics of each kingdom indicate the degree of divergence between them
S3.5.gr9-12.D. Explain the classification of living organisms from the domain to species level
S3.5.gr9-12.E. Explain the importance of binomial nomenclature
S3.5.gr9-12.F. Generate and use a dichotomous key
S3.5.gr9-12.G. Differentiate between vascular and nonvascular plants
S3.5.gr9-12.H. Explain the difference between anigosperms and gymnosperms
S3.5.gr9-12.I. Compare and contrast major animal phyla
S3.5.gr9-12.J. Compare and contrast body systems between major animal phyla
MT.S4.Students, through the inquiry process, demonstrate knowledge of the composition, structures, processes and interactions of Earth's systems and other objects in space.
Students, through the inquiry process, demonstrate knowledge of the composition, structures, processes and interactions of Earth's systems and other objects in space.
S4.1. Understand the theory of plate tectonics and how it explains the interrelationship between earthquakes, volcanoes, and sea floor spreading S4.1.gr9-12.A. Describe the independent movement of Earth's crustal plates
S4.1.gr9-12.B. Describe the observations and evidence that led to the formation of the theory of plate tectonics
S4.1.gr9-12.C. Model the interaction of heat-driven convection and the movement of the plates
S4.1.gr9-12.D. Identify the types of plate boundaries
S4.1.gr9-12.E. Model ways plates interact at plate boundaries
S4.1.gr9-12.F. Contrast the different types of plate boundaries and the products of these plate interactions
S4.1.gr9-12.G. Identify the causes of earthquakes
S4.1.gr9-12.H. Explain volcanic processes
S4.1.gr9-12.I. Relate earthquakes and volcanic activity to plate boundaries and other geologic settings
S4.2. Identify and classify rocks and minerals based on physical and chemical properties and the utilization by humans (e.g., natural resources, building materials) S4.2.gr9-12.A. Define mineral
S4.2.gr9-12.B. Describe the physical and chemical properties and equipment used to identify minerals
S4.2.gr9-12.C. Classify minerals using observable properties, tools, and reference materials
S4.2.gr9-12.E. Define rock
S4.2.gr9-12.F. Summarize the rock cycle and its process
S4.2.gr9-12.G. Describe the physical and chemical properties and equipment used to identify rocks
S4.2.gr9-12.H. Classify rocks into rock types using observable properties, tools, and reference materials
S4.2.gr9-12.I. Identify various mineral and rock resources, their value, their uses, and their importance to humans
S4.2.gr9-12.J. Explain how various mineral and rock resources are obtained
S4.3. Explain scientific theories about how fossils are used as evidence of changes over time S4.3.gr9-12.B. Explain how various fossils show evidence of past life
S4.3.gr9-12.C. Model the scale of geologic time
S4.3.gr9-12.D. Interpret rock layers using principles of relative and absolute age dating
S4.3.gr9-12.E. Give examples of major biologic, climactic, and geologic changes in Earth's history and provide supporting rock and fossil evidence of these changes
S4.3.gr9-12.F. Relate major changes to the divisions of geologic time
S4.4. Collect and analyze local and regional weather data to make inferences and predictions about weather patterns; explain factors influencing global weather patterns and climate; and describe the impact on earth of fluctuations in weather and climate (e.g., drought, surface and ground water, glacial instability) S4.4.gr9-12.A. Identify measurable weather-related variables commonly used in forecasting
S4.4.gr9-12.B. Identify the instruments and technology used to collect weather data
S4.4.gr9-12.C. Collect weather data and observe weather conditions
S4.4.gr9-12.D. Summarize how cloud formation and precipitation are affected by changes in atmospheric conditions
S4.4.gr9-12.E. Discuss the role of energy transfer in the atmosphere and its effects on weather changes
S4.4.gr9-12.F. Describe the impacts of fronts, air masses, and pressure systems on local and regional weather
S4.4.gr9-12.G. Analyze the effect of local geographic factors on weather
S4.4.gr9-12.H. Use data to infer and predict weather patterns
S4.4.gr9-12.I. Identify the geographic factors that influence climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
S4.4.gr9-12.J. Determine which geographic factors result in specific local and regional climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
S4.4.gr9-12.K. Examine the importance of the structure and composition of the atmosphere as influencing factors on Earth's weather and climate
S4.4.gr9-12.L. Describe how global wind patterns influence weather and climate
S4.4.gr9-12.M. Explain the relationship between ocean currents, weather, and climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
S4.4.gr9-12.N. Compare the conditions that generate various types of severe weather
S4.4.gr9-12.O. Discuss the impacts of various types of severe weather
S4.5. Explain the impact of terrestrial, solar, oceanic, and atmosphere conditions on global climatic patterns S4.5.gr9-12.A. Identify examples of natural phenomena (terrestrial, atmospheric, oceanic, and astronomical) that impact global climate patterns Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
S4.5.gr9-12.B. Explain the short and long term-effects of these natural phenomena on global climate patterns Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
S4.5.gr9-12.C. Examine the geologic, astronomical, and human factors that contribute to global climate change Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
S4.5.gr9-12.E. Describe socioeconomic and environmental implications of climate change Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
S4.6. Describe the origin, location, and evolution of stars and their planetary systems in respect to the solar system, the Milky Way, the local galactic group, and the universe S4.6.gr9-12.B. Summarize evidence supporting the Big Bang Theory
S4.6.gr9-12.C. Summarize the evolution of stars from birth to death
S4.6.gr9-12.D. Identify the importance of fusion in a star's evolutionary cycle
S4.6.gr9-12.F. Compare and contrast the characteristics of planets and stars
S4.6.gr9-12.G. Explain current theories of the formation of a solar system
S4.6.gr9-12.H. Explain how the formation and evolution of a solar system influences the composition and placement of objects within it
S4.6.gr9-12.I. Define galaxy
S4.6.gr9-12.J. Describe the shape of the Milky Way Galaxy and our place in it
S4.6.gr9-12.K. Illustrate the hierarchy of stars, planets, solar systems, galaxies and galactic group in the universe
S4.7. Relate how evidence from advanced technology applied to scientific investigations (e.g., large telescopes and spaceborne observatories), has dramatically impacted our understanding of the origin, size, and volution of the universe S4.7.gr9-12.A. Discuss how various types of technology are used to study space
S4.7.gr9-12.B. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of various tools used to study space
MT.S5.Students, through the inquiry process, understand how scientific knowledge and technological developments impact communities, cultures and societies.
Students, through the inquiry process, understand how scientific knowledge and technological developments impact communities, cultures and societies.
S5.1. Predict how key factors (e.g., technology, competitiveness, and world events) affect the development and acceptance of scientific thought S5.1.gr9-12.A. Identify an example of scientific thought that has been or is affected by key factors such as technology, competitiveness (industrial, political, religious, etc.), world events, etc
S5.1.gr9-12.B. Analyze how the development and/or acceptance of this example was influenced by various factors
S5.1.gr9-12.D. Predict and discuss how key factors could impact the development and acceptance of scientific thought
S5.2. Give examples of scientific innovation challenging commonly held perceptions S5.2.gr9-12.A. Identify and discuss examples of commonly held perceptions or ideas being challenged by science (i.e. heliocentrism, flat earth, spontaneous generation)
S5.4. Analyze benefits, limitations, costs, consequences, and ethics involved in using scientific and technological innovations (e.g., biotechnology, environmental issues) S5.4.gr9-12.A. Identify various scientific and technological innovations
S5.4.gr9-12.B. Compare and contrast the benefits and limitations of the various innovations
S5.4.gr9-12.C. Analyze the cost and consequences of the innovations
S5.4.gr9-12.D. Examine the ethical issues involved with the innovations
MT.S6.Students understand historical developments in science and technology.
Students understand historical developments in science and technology.
S6.1. Analyze and illustrate the historical impact of scientific and technological advances, including Montana American Indian examples S6.1.gr9-12.A. Identify important historical events in science and technology
S6.1.gr9-12.B. Analyze the positive and negative impacts of past, present, and future science and technological advances
S6.2. Trace developments that demonstrate scientific knowledge is subject to change as new evidence becomes available S6.2.gr9-12.A. Identify examples of scientific knowledge that have changed over time
S6.2.gr9-12.B. Discuss the developments that contributed to the progression of the scientific knowledge
S6.2.gr9-12.C. Analyze the impact of each development on the scientific knowledge
S6.3. Describe, explain, and analyze science as a human endeavor and an ongoing process S6.3.gr9-12.D. Analyze how human interpretation of evidence affects the process of science
S6.3.gr9-12.E. Describe how science is an ongoing process