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MN.9.1.The Nature of Science and Engineering
The Nature of Science and Engineering
9.1.1. The Practice of Science 220.127.116.11. The student will understand that science is a way of knowing about the natural world that is characterized by empirical criteria, logical argument and skeptical review. 18.104.22.168.2. Understand that scientists conduct investigations for a variety of reasons: to discover new aspects of the natural world, to explain recently observed phenomena, to test the conclusions of prior investigations, or to test the predictions of current theories.
22.214.171.124.6. Describe how changes in scientific knowledge generally occur in incremental steps that include and build on earlier knowledge.
126.96.36.199.7. Explain how scientific and technological innovations - as well as new evidence - can challenge portions of, or entire accepted theories and models including, but not limited to: cell theory, atomic theory, theory of evolution, plate tectonic theory, germ theory of disease, and the big bang theory.
188.8.131.52. The student will understand that scientific inquiry uses multiple interrelated processes to investigate and explain the natural world. 184.108.40.206.1. Formulate a testable hypothesis, design and conduct an experiment to test the hypothesis, analyze the data, consider alternative explanations and draw conclusions supported by evidence from the investigation.
220.127.116.11.2. Evaluate the explanations proposed by others by examining and comparing evidence, identifying faulty reasoning, pointing out statements that go beyond the scientifically acceptable evidence, and suggesting alternative scientific explanations.
9.1.3. Interactions Among Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Society 18.104.22.168. The student will understand that natural and designed systems are made up of components that act within a system and interact with other systems. 22.214.171.124.1. Describe a system, including specifications of boundaries and subsystems, relationships to other systems, and identification of inputs and expected outputs.
126.96.36.199.2. Identify properties of a system that are different from those of its parts but appear because of the interaction of those parts.
188.8.131.52.3. Describe how positive and/or negative feedback occur in systems.
184.108.40.206. The student will understand that science, technology, engineering and mathematics rely on each other to enhance knowledge and understanding. 220.127.116.11.1. Describe how technological problems and advances often create a demand for new scientific knowledge, improved mathematics and new technologies.
18.104.22.168.2. Determine and use appropriate safety procedures, tools, computers and measurement instruments in science and engineering contexts.
22.214.171.124.3. Select and use appropriate numeric, symbolic, pictorial, or graphical representation to communicate scientific ideas, procedures and experimental results.
126.96.36.199.6. Analyze the strengths and limitations of physical, conceptual, mathematical and computer models used by scientists and engineers.
MN.9.13.Reading Benchmarks: Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6-12
Reading Benchmarks: Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6-12
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 188.8.131.52. Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
184.108.40.206. Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts.
Craft and Structure 220.127.116.11. Determine the meaning of symbols, equations, graphical representations, tabular representations, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Motion Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Motion
18.104.22.168. Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, energy).
MN.9.14.Writing Benchmarks: Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6-12
Writing Benchmarks: Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6-12
Research to Build and Present Knowledge 22.214.171.124. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize ideas from multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
Text Types and Purposes 126.96.36.199. Write informative/explanatory texts, as they apply to each discipline and reporting format, including the narration of historical events, of scientific procedures/ experiments, or description of technical processes. 188.8.131.52.d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic and convey a style appropriate to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
184.108.40.206.f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
9.2.1. Matter 220.127.116.11. The student will understand that the structure of the atom determines chemical properties of elements. 18.104.22.168.1. Describe the relative charges, masses, and locations of the protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom of an element.
22.214.171.124.2. Describe how experimental evidence led Dalton, Rutherford, Thompson, Chadwick and Bohr to develop increasingly accurate models of the atom.
126.96.36.199.3. Explain the arrangement of the elements on the Periodic Table, including the relationships among elements in a given column or row.
188.8.131.52.4. Explain that isotopes of an element have different numbers of neutrons and that some are unstable and emit particles and/or radiation.
184.108.40.206. The student will understand that chemical reactions involve the rearrangement of atoms as chemical bonds are broken and formed through transferring or sharing of electrons and the absorption or release of energy. 220.127.116.11.1. Describe the role of valence electrons in the formation of chemical bonds.
18.104.22.168.2. Explain how the rearrangement of atoms in a chemical reaction illustrates the law of conservation of mass.
22.214.171.124.3. Describe a chemical reaction using words and symbolic equations.
126.96.36.199.4. Relate exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions to temperature and energy changes.
9.2.2. Motion 188.8.131.52. The student will understand that forces and object mass determine the motion of an object. 184.108.40.206.1. Recognize that the inertia of an object causes it to resist changes in motion. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Forces Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Forces
220.127.116.11.2. Explain and calculate the acceleration of an object subjected to a set of forces in one dimension (F=ma). Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Forces Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Forces Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Motion Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Motion
18.104.22.168.3. Demonstrate that whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted by the second object back on the first object. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Forces Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Forces
9.2.3. Energy 22.214.171.124. The student will understand that energy can be transformed within a system or transferred to other systems or the environment, but is always conserved. 126.96.36.199.2. Calculate and explain the energy, work and power involved in energy transfers in a mechanical system.
188.8.131.52.3. Describe how energy is transferred through sound waves and how pitch and loudness are related to wave properties of amplitude and wavelength. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Sound Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Sound Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Sound
184.108.40.206.4. Explain and calculate current, voltage and resistance, and describe energy transfers in simple electric circuits. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Electricity
220.127.116.11.5. Describe how an electric current produces a magnetic force, and how this interaction is used in motors and electromagnets to produce mechanical energy.
18.104.22.168.6. Use the idea that small amounts of matter are transformed into large amounts of energy in nuclear reactions to compare fission and fusion in terms of beginning and end products and the amount of energy released.
22.214.171.124.7. Describe the properties and uses of forms of electromagnetic radiation from radio frequencies through gamma radiation. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Light Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Light
9.2.4. Human Interaction with Physical Systems 126.96.36.199. The student will understand that there are benefits, costs and risks to different means of generating and using energy. 188.8.131.52.1. Compare local and global environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of generating electricity using various sources or energy.
184.108.40.206.2. Describe the trade-offs involved when technological developments impact the way we use energy, natural resources, or synthetic materials.
MN.9.3.Earth and Space Science
9.3.1. Earth Structure and Processes 220.127.116.11. The student will understand that the relationships among earthquakes, mountains, volcanoes, fossil deposits, rock layers and ocean features provide evidence for the theory of plate tectonics. 18.104.22.168.1. Compare and contrast the interaction of tectonic plates at convergent and divergent boundaries. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Earthquakes
22.214.171.124.2. Use modern earthquake data to explain how seismic activity is evidence for the process of subduction.
126.96.36.199.3. Describe how the pattern of magnetic reversals and rock ages on both sides of a mid-ocean ridge provides evidence of sea-floor spreading.
188.8.131.52.4. Explain how the rock record provides evidence for plate movement. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Fossils Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Fossils
184.108.40.206.5. Describe how experimental and observational evidence led to the theory of plate tectonics.
220.127.116.11. The student will understand that by observing rock sequences and using fossils to correlate the sequences at various locations, geologic events can be inferred and geologic time can be estimated. 18.104.22.168.1. Use relative dating techniques to explain how the structure of the Earth and life on Earth has changed over short and long periods of time. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Fossils Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Fossils
9.3.2. Interdependence Within the Earth System 22.214.171.124. The student will understand that the Earth system has internal and external sources of energy, which produce heat and drive the motion of material in the oceans, atmosphere and solid earth. 126.96.36.199.1. Compare and contrast the energy sources of the Earth, including the sun, the decay of radioactive isotopes and gravitational energy.
188.8.131.52.2. Explain how the outward transfer of Earth's internal heat drives the convection circulation in the mantle to move tectonic plates.
184.108.40.206. The student will understand that global climate is determined by distribution of energy from the sun at the Earth's surface. 220.127.116.11.1. Explain how Earth's rotation, ocean currents, configuration of mountain ranges, and composition of the atmosphere influence the absorption and distribution of energy, which contributes to global climatic patterns. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
18.104.22.168.2. Explain how evidence from the geologic record, including ice core samples, indicates that climate changes have occurred at varying rates over geologic time and continue to occur today. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Climate
22.214.171.124. The student will understand that material in the Earth system cycles through different reservoirs, and is powered by the Earth's sources of energy. 126.96.36.199.1. Trace the cyclical movement of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen through the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.
9.3.3. The Universe 188.8.131.52. The student will understand that the solar system, sun, and Earth formed over billions of years. 184.108.40.206.1. Describe how the solar system formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas 4.6 billion years ago.
220.127.116.11.2.. Explain how the Earth evolved into its present habitable form through interactions among the solid earth, the oceans, the atmosphere and organisms.
18.104.22.168.3. Compare and contrast the environmental conditions that make life possible on Earth with conditions found on the other planets and moons of our solar system.
22.214.171.124. The student will understand that the big bang theory states that the universe expanded from a hot, dense chaotic mass, after which elements formed and clumped together to eventually form stars and galaxies. 126.96.36.199.1. Explain how evidence is used to understand the composition, early history and expansion of the universe.
188.8.131.52.2. Explain how gravitational clumping leads to nuclear fusion, producing energy and the chemical elements of a star.
9.3.4. Human Interactions with the Earth System 184.108.40.206. The student will understand that people consider potential benefits, costs and risks to make decisions on how they interact with natural systems. 220.127.116.11.1. Analyze the benefits, costs, risks and tradeoffs associated with natural hazards, including the selection of land use and engineering mitigation.
18.104.22.168.2. Explain how human activity and natural processes are altering the hydrosphere, biosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere, including pollution, topography and climate. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
9.4.1. Structure and Function in Living Systems 22.214.171.124. The student will understand that organisms use the interaction of cellular processes as well as tissues and organ systems to maintain homeostasis. 126.96.36.199.1. Explain how cell processes are influenced by internal and external factors, such as pH and temperature, and how cells and organisms respond to changes in their environment to maintain homeostasis.
188.8.131.52.2. Describe how the functions of individual organ systems are integrated to maintain homeostasis in an organism.
184.108.40.206. The student will understand that cells and cell structures have specific functions that allow an organism to grow, survive and reproduce. 220.127.116.11.1. Recognize that cells are composed primarily of a few elements (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur), and describe the basic molecular structures of cells and the primary functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
18.104.22.168.2. Recognize that the work of the cell is carried out primarily by proteins, most of which are enzymes, and that protein function depends on the amino acid sequence and the shape it takes as a consequence of the interactions between those amino acids.
22.214.171.124.3. Describe how viruses, prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells differ in relative size, complexity and general structure.
126.96.36.199.4. Explain the function and importance of cell organelles for prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic cells as related to the basic cell processes of respiration, photosynthesis, protein synthesis and cell reproduction.
188.8.131.52.5. Compare and contrast passive transport (including osmosis and facilitated transport) with active transport, such as endocytosis and exocytosis.
184.108.40.206.6. Explain the process of mitosis in the formation of identical new cells and maintaining chromosome number during asexual reproduction.
9.4.2. Interdependence among Living Systems 220.127.116.11. The student will understand that matter cycles and energy flows through different levels of organization of living systems and the physical environment, as chemical elements are combined in different ways. 18.104.22.168.1. Use words and equations to differentiate between the processes of photosynthesis and respiration in terms of energy flow, beginning reactants and end products.
22.214.171.124.2. Explain how matter and energy in an ecosystem is transformed and transferred among organisms, and how energy is dissipated as heat into the environment.
9.4.3. Evolution in Living Systems 126.96.36.199. The student will understand that genetic information found in the cell provides information for assembling proteins, which dictate the expression of traits in an individual. 188.8.131.52.1. Explain the relationships among DNA, genes and chromosomes.
184.108.40.206.2. In the context of a monohybrid cross, apply the terms phenotype, genotype, allele, homozygous and heterozygous.
220.127.116.11.3. Describe the process of DNA replication and the role of DNA and RNA in assembling protein molecules.
18.104.22.168. The student will understand that variation within a species is the natural result of new inheritable characteristics occurring from new combinations of existing genes or from mutations of genes in reproductive cells. 22.214.171.124.2. Use the processes of mitosis and meiosis to explain the advantages and disadvantages of asexual and sexual reproduction.
126.96.36.199.3. Explain how mutations like deletions, insertions, rearrangements or substitutions of DNA segments in gametes may have no effect, may harm, or rarely may be beneficial, and can result in genetic variation within a species.
188.8.131.52. The student will understand that evolution by natural selection is a scientific explanation for the history and diversity of life on Earth. 184.108.40.206.1. Describe how evidence led Darwin to develop the theory of natural selection and common descent to explain evolution.
220.127.116.11.2. Use scientific evidence, including the fossil record, homologous structures, and genetic and/or biochemical similarities, to show evolutionary relationships among species.
18.104.22.168.3. Recognize that artificial selection has led to offspring through successive generations that can be very different in appearance and behavior from their distant ancestors.
22.214.171.124.4. Explain why genetic variation within a population is essential for evolution to occur.
126.96.36.199.5. Explain how competition for finite resources and the changing environment promotes natural selection on offspring survival, depending on whether the offspring have characteristics that are advantageous or disadvantageous in the new environment.
9.4.4. Human Interactions with Living Systems 188.8.131.52. The student will understand that human activity has consequences on living organisms and ecosystems. 184.108.40.206.2. Describe the social, economic and ecological risks and benefits of changing a natural ecosystem as a result of human activity.
220.127.116.11. The student will understand that personal and community health can be affected by the environment, body functions and human behavior. 18.104.22.168.1. Describe how some diseases can sometimes be predicted by genetic testing and how this affects parental and community decisions.
22.214.171.124.2. Explain how the body produces antibodies to fight disease and how vaccines assist this process.
126.96.36.199.3. Describe how the immune system sometimes attacks some of the body's own cells and how some allergic reactions are caused by the body's immune responses to usually harmless environmental substances.
188.8.131.52.4. Explain how environmental factors and personal decisions, such as water pollution, air quality and smoking affect personal and community health.
184.108.40.206.5. Recognize that a gene mutation in a cell can result in uncontrolled cell division called cancer and how exposure of cells to certain chemicals and radiation increases mutations and thus increases the chance of cancer.
9C.2. Physical Science 9C.2.1. Matter 9C.2.1.1. The student will understand that the periodic table illustrates how patterns in the physical and chemical properties of elements are related to atomic structure. 9C.220.127.116.11. Explain the relationship of an element's position on the periodic table to its atomic number and electron configuration.
9C.18.104.22.168. Identify and compare trends on the periodic table, including reactivity and relative sizes of atoms and ions; use the trends to explain the properties of subgroups, including metals, non-metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens and noble gases.
9C.2.1.2. The student will understand that chemical and physical properties of matter result from the ability of atoms to form bonds. 9C.22.214.171.124. Explain how elements combine to form compounds through ionic and covalent bonding.
9C.126.96.36.199. Compare and contrast the structure, properties and uses of organic compounds, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols, sugars, fats and proteins.
9C.188.8.131.52. Use IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) nomenclature to write chemical formulas and name molecular and ionic compounds, including those that contain polyatomic ions.
9C.184.108.40.206. Determine percent composition, empirical formulas and molecular formulas of simple compounds.
9C.220.127.116.11. Describe the dynamic process by which solutes dissolve in solvents and calculate concentrations, including percent concentration, molarity and parts per million.
9C.18.104.22.168. Explain the role of solubility of solids, liquids and gases in natural and designed systems.
9C.2.1.3. The student will understand that chemical reactions describe a chemical change in which one or more reactants are transformed into one or more products. 9C.22.214.171.124. Classify chemical reactions as double replacement, single replacement, synthesis, decomposition or combustion.
9C.126.96.36.199. Use solubility and activity of ions to determine whether a double replacement or single replacement reaction will occur.
9C.188.8.131.52. Relate the properties of acids and bases to the ions they contain and predict the products of an acid-base reaction.
9C.184.108.40.206. Balance chemical equations by applying the laws of conservation of mass and constant composition.
9C.220.127.116.11. Describe the factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction, including temperature, pressure, mixing, concentration, particle size, surface area and catalyst.
9C.18.104.22.168. Recognize that some chemical reactions are reversible and that not all chemical reactions go to completion.
9C.2.1.4. The student will understand that states of matter can be described in terms of motion of molecules. The properties and behavior of gases can be explained using the Kinetic Molecular Theory. 9C.22.214.171.124. Use kinetic molecular theory to explain how changes in energy content affect the state of matter (solid, liquid and gaseous phases).
9C.126.96.36.199. Explain changes in temperature, pressure, volume and number of particles of a gas in terms of the random motion of molecules in an ideal gas.
9P.2. Physical Science 9P.2.2. Motion 9P.2.2.1. The student will understand that forces and inertia determine the motion of objects. 9P.188.8.131.52. Apply Newton's three laws of motion to calculate and analyze the effect of forces and momentum on motion. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Forces Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Forces
9P.184.108.40.206. Use gravitational force to explain the motion of objects near Earth and in the universe. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Forces Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Forces
9P.2.2.2. The student will understand that when objects change their motion or interact with other objects in the absence of frictional forces, the total amount of mechanical energy remains constant. 9P.220.127.116.11. Explain and calculate the work, power, potential energy and kinetic energy involved in objects moving under the influence of gravity and other mechanical forces. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Forces Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Forces Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Heat
9P.18.104.22.168. Describe and calculate the change in velocity for objects when forces are applied perpendicular to the direction of motion.
9P.22.214.171.124. Use conservation of momentum and energy to analyze the elastic collision of two solid objects in one-dimensional motion.
9P.2.3. Energy 9P.2.3.1. The student will understand that sound waves are generated from mechanical oscillations of objects and travel through a medium. 9P.126.96.36.199. Describe how vibration of physical objects sets up transverse and longitudinal waves in gases, liquids and solid materials.
9P.188.8.131.52. Explain how wave properties, such as interference, resonance, refraction and reflection, affect sound waves. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Sound Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Sound Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Sound
9P.184.108.40.206. Describe the Doppler effect changes that occur in an observed sound as a result of the motion of a source of the sound relative to a receiver. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Sound Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Sound Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Sound
9P.2.3.2. The student will understand that electrons respond to electric fields and voltages by moving through electrical circuits and this motion generates magnetic fields. 9P.220.127.116.11. Explain why currents flow when free charges are placed in an electrical field, and how that forms the basis for electrical circuits. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Electricity
9P.18.104.22.168. Explain and calculate the relationship of current, voltage, resistance and power in series and parallel circuits. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Electricity
9P.22.214.171.124. Describe how moving electric charges produce magnetic forces and moving magnets produce electric forces.
9P.126.96.36.199. Use the interplay of electric and magnetic forces to explain how motors, generators, and transformers work.
9P.2.3.3. The student will understand that magnetic and electric fields interact to produce electromagnetic waves. 9P.188.8.131.52. Describe the nature of the magnetic and electrical fields in a propagating electromagnetic wave. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Light Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Light
9P.184.108.40.206. Quantitatively relate the speed of light in a medium to its frequency and wave-length in that medium, and in free space. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Light
9P.220.127.116.11. Use Snell's Law to explain the refraction and total internal reflection of light in transparent media, such as lenses and fiber optics.
9P.18.104.22.168. Use properties of light, including reflection, refraction, interference, Doppler effect and the photoelectric effect, to explain phenomena and describe applications. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Light
9P.22.214.171.124. Compare the wave model and particle model in explaining properties of light.
9P.126.96.36.199. Compare the wavelength, frequency and energy of different kinds of waves in the electromagnetic spectrum and describe their applications. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Light Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Light
9P.2.3.4. The student will understand that heat is energy transferred between objects or regions that are at different temperatures by the processes of convection, conduction and radiation. 9P.188.8.131.52. Describe and calculate the quantity of heat transferred between solids and/or liquids, using specific heat, density and temperatures. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Heat
9P.184.108.40.206. Explain the role of gravity, pressure and density in the convection of heat by a fluid.
9P.220.127.116.11. Compare the rate at which objects at different temperatures will transfer thermal energy by electromagnetic radiation.