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MN.11.13.Reading Benchmarks: Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6-12
Reading Benchmarks: Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6-12
Craft and Structure 18.104.22.168. Determine the meaning of symbols, equations, graphical representations, tabular representations, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11-12 texts and topics.
MN.9.1.The Nature of Science and Engineering
The Nature of Science and Engineering
9.1.1. The Practice of Science 22.214.171.124. The student will understand that science is a way of knowing about the natural world that is characterized by empirical criteria, logical argument and skeptical review. 126.96.36.199.7. Explain how scientific and technological innovations - as well as new evidence - can challenge portions of, or entire accepted theories and models including, but not limited to: cell theory, atomic theory, theory of evolution, plate tectonic theory, germ theory of disease, and the big bang theory.
9.2.1. Matter 188.8.131.52. The student will understand that the structure of the atom determines chemical properties of elements. 184.108.40.206.1. Describe the relative charges, masses, and locations of the protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom of an element.
220.127.116.11.3. Explain the arrangement of the elements on the Periodic Table, including the relationships among elements in a given column or row.
18.104.22.168.4. Explain that isotopes of an element have different numbers of neutrons and that some are unstable and emit particles and/or radiation.
22.214.171.124. The student will understand that chemical reactions involve the rearrangement of atoms as chemical bonds are broken and formed through transferring or sharing of electrons and the absorption or release of energy. 126.96.36.199.1. Describe the role of valence electrons in the formation of chemical bonds.
188.8.131.52.3. Describe a chemical reaction using words and symbolic equations.
184.108.40.206.4. Relate exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions to temperature and energy changes.
9.2.2. Motion 220.127.116.11. The student will understand that forces and object mass determine the motion of an object. 18.104.22.168.1. Recognize that the inertia of an object causes it to resist changes in motion.
22.214.171.124.2. Explain and calculate the acceleration of an object subjected to a set of forces in one dimension (F=ma).
9.2.3. Energy 126.96.36.199. The student will understand that energy can be transformed within a system or transferred to other systems or the environment, but is always conserved. 188.8.131.52.2. Calculate and explain the energy, work and power involved in energy transfers in a mechanical system.
184.108.40.206.3. Describe how energy is transferred through sound waves and how pitch and loudness are related to wave properties of amplitude and wavelength. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Sound
220.127.116.11.4. Explain and calculate current, voltage and resistance, and describe energy transfers in simple electric circuits.
18.104.22.168.5. Describe how an electric current produces a magnetic force, and how this interaction is used in motors and electromagnets to produce mechanical energy.
22.214.171.124.6. Use the idea that small amounts of matter are transformed into large amounts of energy in nuclear reactions to compare fission and fusion in terms of beginning and end products and the amount of energy released.
126.96.36.199.7. Describe the properties and uses of forms of electromagnetic radiation from radio frequencies through gamma radiation.
MN.9.3.Earth and Space Science
9.3.1. Earth Structure and Processes 188.8.131.52. The student will understand that the relationships among earthquakes, mountains, volcanoes, fossil deposits, rock layers and ocean features provide evidence for the theory of plate tectonics. 184.108.40.206.1. Compare and contrast the interaction of tectonic plates at convergent and divergent boundaries.
220.127.116.11.3. Describe how the pattern of magnetic reversals and rock ages on both sides of a mid-ocean ridge provides evidence of sea-floor spreading.
18.104.22.168.4. Explain how the rock record provides evidence for plate movement.
22.214.171.124.5. Describe how experimental and observational evidence led to the theory of plate tectonics.
126.96.36.199. The student will understand that by observing rock sequences and using fossils to correlate the sequences at various locations, geologic events can be inferred and geologic time can be estimated. 188.8.131.52.1. Use relative dating techniques to explain how the structure of the Earth and life on Earth has changed over short and long periods of time.
9.3.2. Interdependence Within the Earth System 184.108.40.206. The student will understand that the Earth system has internal and external sources of energy, which produce heat and drive the motion of material in the oceans, atmosphere and solid earth. 220.127.116.11.2. Explain how the outward transfer of Earth's internal heat drives the convection circulation in the mantle to move tectonic plates.
18.104.22.168. The student will understand that global climate is determined by distribution of energy from the sun at the Earth's surface. 22.214.171.124.1. Explain how Earth's rotation, ocean currents, configuration of mountain ranges, and composition of the atmosphere influence the absorption and distribution of energy, which contributes to global climatic patterns. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
126.96.36.199.2. Explain how evidence from the geologic record, including ice core samples, indicates that climate changes have occurred at varying rates over geologic time and continue to occur today. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
188.8.131.52. The student will understand that material in the Earth system cycles through different reservoirs, and is powered by the Earth's sources of energy. 184.108.40.206.1. Trace the cyclical movement of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen through the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.
9.3.3. The Universe 220.127.116.11. The student will understand that the solar system, sun, and Earth formed over billions of years. 18.104.22.168.1. Describe how the solar system formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas 4.6 billion years ago.
22.214.171.124.2.. Explain how the Earth evolved into its present habitable form through interactions among the solid earth, the oceans, the atmosphere and organisms.
126.96.36.199. The student will understand that the big bang theory states that the universe expanded from a hot, dense chaotic mass, after which elements formed and clumped together to eventually form stars and galaxies. 188.8.131.52.1. Explain how evidence is used to understand the composition, early history and expansion of the universe.
184.108.40.206.2. Explain how gravitational clumping leads to nuclear fusion, producing energy and the chemical elements of a star.
9.3.4. Human Interactions with the Earth System 220.127.116.11. The student will understand that people consider potential benefits, costs and risks to make decisions on how they interact with natural systems. 18.104.22.168.1. Analyze the benefits, costs, risks and tradeoffs associated with natural hazards, including the selection of land use and engineering mitigation.
22.214.171.124.2. Explain how human activity and natural processes are altering the hydrosphere, biosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere, including pollution, topography and climate. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
9.4.1. Structure and Function in Living Systems 126.96.36.199. The student will understand that organisms use the interaction of cellular processes as well as tissues and organ systems to maintain homeostasis. 188.8.131.52.1. Explain how cell processes are influenced by internal and external factors, such as pH and temperature, and how cells and organisms respond to changes in their environment to maintain homeostasis.
184.108.40.206.2. Describe how the functions of individual organ systems are integrated to maintain homeostasis in an organism.
220.127.116.11. The student will understand that cells and cell structures have specific functions that allow an organism to grow, survive and reproduce. 18.104.22.168.1. Recognize that cells are composed primarily of a few elements (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur), and describe the basic molecular structures of cells and the primary functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
22.214.171.124.2. Recognize that the work of the cell is carried out primarily by proteins, most of which are enzymes, and that protein function depends on the amino acid sequence and the shape it takes as a consequence of the interactions between those amino acids.
126.96.36.199.4. Explain the function and importance of cell organelles for prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic cells as related to the basic cell processes of respiration, photosynthesis, protein synthesis and cell reproduction.
188.8.131.52.6. Explain the process of mitosis in the formation of identical new cells and maintaining chromosome number during asexual reproduction.
9.4.2. Interdependence among Living Systems 184.108.40.206. The student will understand that matter cycles and energy flows through different levels of organization of living systems and the physical environment, as chemical elements are combined in different ways. 220.127.116.11.1. Use words and equations to differentiate between the processes of photosynthesis and respiration in terms of energy flow, beginning reactants and end products.
18.104.22.168.2. Explain how matter and energy in an ecosystem is transformed and transferred among organisms, and how energy is dissipated as heat into the environment.
9.4.3. Evolution in Living Systems 22.214.171.124. The student will understand that genetic information found in the cell provides information for assembling proteins, which dictate the expression of traits in an individual. 126.96.36.199.1. Explain the relationships among DNA, genes and chromosomes.
188.8.131.52.2. In the context of a monohybrid cross, apply the terms phenotype, genotype, allele, homozygous and heterozygous.
184.108.40.206.3. Describe the process of DNA replication and the role of DNA and RNA in assembling protein molecules.
220.127.116.11. The student will understand that variation within a species is the natural result of new inheritable characteristics occurring from new combinations of existing genes or from mutations of genes in reproductive cells. 18.104.22.168.2. Use the processes of mitosis and meiosis to explain the advantages and disadvantages of asexual and sexual reproduction.
22.214.171.124.3. Explain how mutations like deletions, insertions, rearrangements or substitutions of DNA segments in gametes may have no effect, may harm, or rarely may be beneficial, and can result in genetic variation within a species.
126.96.36.199. The student will understand that evolution by natural selection is a scientific explanation for the history and diversity of life on Earth. 188.8.131.52.1. Describe how evidence led Darwin to develop the theory of natural selection and common descent to explain evolution.
184.108.40.206.3. Recognize that artificial selection has led to offspring through successive generations that can be very different in appearance and behavior from their distant ancestors.
220.127.116.11.4. Explain why genetic variation within a population is essential for evolution to occur.
18.104.22.168.5. Explain how competition for finite resources and the changing environment promotes natural selection on offspring survival, depending on whether the offspring have characteristics that are advantageous or disadvantageous in the new environment.
9C.2. Physical Science 9C.2.1. Matter 9C.2.1.1. The student will understand that the periodic table illustrates how patterns in the physical and chemical properties of elements are related to atomic structure. 9C.22.214.171.124. Identify and compare trends on the periodic table, including reactivity and relative sizes of atoms and ions; use the trends to explain the properties of subgroups, including metals, non-metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens and noble gases.
9C.2.1.2. The student will understand that chemical and physical properties of matter result from the ability of atoms to form bonds. 9C.126.96.36.199. Explain how elements combine to form compounds through ionic and covalent bonding.
9C.188.8.131.52. Compare and contrast the structure, properties and uses of organic compounds, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols, sugars, fats and proteins.
9C.184.108.40.206. Use IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) nomenclature to write chemical formulas and name molecular and ionic compounds, including those that contain polyatomic ions.
9C.220.127.116.11. Determine percent composition, empirical formulas and molecular formulas of simple compounds.
9C.18.104.22.168. Describe the dynamic process by which solutes dissolve in solvents and calculate concentrations, including percent concentration, molarity and parts per million.
9C.2.1.3. The student will understand that chemical reactions describe a chemical change in which one or more reactants are transformed into one or more products. 9C.22.214.171.124. Classify chemical reactions as double replacement, single replacement, synthesis, decomposition or combustion.
9C.126.96.36.199. Use solubility and activity of ions to determine whether a double replacement or single replacement reaction will occur.
9C.188.8.131.52. Relate the properties of acids and bases to the ions they contain and predict the products of an acid-base reaction.
9C.184.108.40.206. Balance chemical equations by applying the laws of conservation of mass and constant composition.
9C.220.127.116.11. Describe the factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction, including temperature, pressure, mixing, concentration, particle size, surface area and catalyst.
9C.18.104.22.168. Recognize that some chemical reactions are reversible and that not all chemical reactions go to completion.
9C.2.1.4. The student will understand that states of matter can be described in terms of motion of molecules. The properties and behavior of gases can be explained using the Kinetic Molecular Theory. 9C.22.214.171.124. Use kinetic molecular theory to explain how changes in energy content affect the state of matter (solid, liquid and gaseous phases).
9C.126.96.36.199. Explain changes in temperature, pressure, volume and number of particles of a gas in terms of the random motion of molecules in an ideal gas.
9P.2. Physical Science 9P.2.2. Motion 9P.2.2.1. The student will understand that forces and inertia determine the motion of objects. 9P.188.8.131.52. Apply Newton's three laws of motion to calculate and analyze the effect of forces and momentum on motion.
9P.184.108.40.206. Use gravitational force to explain the motion of objects near Earth and in the universe.
9P.2.2.2. The student will understand that when objects change their motion or interact with other objects in the absence of frictional forces, the total amount of mechanical energy remains constant. 9P.220.127.116.11. Explain and calculate the work, power, potential energy and kinetic energy involved in objects moving under the influence of gravity and other mechanical forces. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Heat
9P.18.104.22.168. Describe and calculate the change in velocity for objects when forces are applied perpendicular to the direction of motion.
9P.22.214.171.124. Use conservation of momentum and energy to analyze the elastic collision of two solid objects in one-dimensional motion.
9P.2.3. Energy 9P.2.3.1. The student will understand that sound waves are generated from mechanical oscillations of objects and travel through a medium. 9P.126.96.36.199. Describe how vibration of physical objects sets up transverse and longitudinal waves in gases, liquids and solid materials.
9P.188.8.131.52. Explain how wave properties, such as interference, resonance, refraction and reflection, affect sound waves. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Sound
9P.184.108.40.206. Describe the Doppler effect changes that occur in an observed sound as a result of the motion of a source of the sound relative to a receiver. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Sound
9P.2.3.2. The student will understand that electrons respond to electric fields and voltages by moving through electrical circuits and this motion generates magnetic fields. 9P.220.127.116.11. Explain why currents flow when free charges are placed in an electrical field, and how that forms the basis for electrical circuits.
9P.18.104.22.168. Explain and calculate the relationship of current, voltage, resistance and power in series and parallel circuits.
9P.22.214.171.124. Use the interplay of electric and magnetic forces to explain how motors, generators, and transformers work.
9P.2.3.3. The student will understand that magnetic and electric fields interact to produce electromagnetic waves. 9P.126.96.36.199. Describe the nature of the magnetic and electrical fields in a propagating electromagnetic wave.
9P.188.8.131.52. Quantitatively relate the speed of light in a medium to its frequency and wave-length in that medium, and in free space. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Light
9P.184.108.40.206. Use properties of light, including reflection, refraction, interference, Doppler effect and the photoelectric effect, to explain phenomena and describe applications. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Light
9P.220.127.116.11. Compare the wavelength, frequency and energy of different kinds of waves in the electromagnetic spectrum and describe their applications.
9P.2.3.4. The student will understand that heat is energy transferred between objects or regions that are at different temperatures by the processes of convection, conduction and radiation. 9P.18.104.22.168. Describe and calculate the quantity of heat transferred between solids and/or liquids, using specific heat, density and temperatures. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Heat