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MD.1.0.Skills and Processes: Students will demonstrate the thinking and acting inherent in the practice of science.
Skills and Processes: Students will demonstrate the thinking and acting inherent in the practice of science.
1.A.1. Constructing Knowledge: Design, analyze, or carry out simple investigations and formulate appropriate conclusions based on data obtained or provided. 1.A.1.a. Explain that scientists differ greatly in what phenomena they study and how they go about their work.
1.A.1.e. Explain that if more than one variable changes at the same time in an investigation, the outcome of the investigation may not be clearly attributable to any one of the variables.
1.A.1.h. Use mathematics to interpret and communicate data.
1.B.1. Applying Evidence and Reasoning: Review data from a simple experiment, summarize the data, and construct a logical argument about the cause-and-effect relationships in the experiment. 1.B.1.d. Describe the reasoning that lead to the interpretation of data and conclusions drawn.
1.C.1. Communicating Scientific Information: Develop explanations that explicitly link data from investigations conducted, selected readings and, when appropriate, contributions from historical discoveries. 1.C.1.a. Organize and present data in tables and graphs and identify relationships they reveal.
1.C.1.b. Interpret tables and graphs produced by others and describe in words the relationships they show.
1.C.1.c. Give examples of how scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way.
1.C.1.e. Explain how different models can be used to represent the same thing. What kind of a model to use and how complex it should be depend on its purpose. Choosing a useful model is one of the instances in which intuition and creativity come into play in science, mathematics, and engineering
1.C.1.g. Recognize that important contributions to the advancement of science, mathematics, and technology have been made by different kinds of people, in different cultures, at different times.
1.D.3. Technology: Analyze the value and the limitations of different types of models in explaining real things and processes. 1.D.3.a. Explain that the kind of model to use and how complex it should be depends on its purpose and that it is possible to have different models used to represent the same thing.
1.D.3.b. Explain, using examples that models are often used to think about processes that happen too slowly, too quickly, or on too small a scale to observe directly, or that are too vast to be changed deliberately, or that are potentially dangerous.
1.D.3.c. Explain that models may sometimes mislead by suggesting characteristics that are not really shared with what is being modeled.
MD.2.0.Earth/Space Science: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time.
Earth/Space Science: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time.
MD.3.0.Life Science: The students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the dynamic nature of living things, their interactions, and the results from the interactions that occur over time.
Life Science: The students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the dynamic nature of living things, their interactions, and the results from the interactions that occur over time.
3.A.1. Diversity of Life: Compile evidence to verify the claim of biologists that the features of organisms connect or differentiate them-these include external and internal structures (features) and processes. 3.A.1.a. Provide examples and explain that organisms sorted into groups share similarities in external structures as well as similarities in internal anatomical structures and processes which can be used to infer the degree of relatedness among organisms: Vascular - non vascular plants; Closed - open circulatory systems; Asexual - sexual reproduction; Respiration (lungs-gills-skin); Digestion.
3.A.1.b. Identify general distinctions among organisms that support classifying some things as plants, some as animals, and some that do not fit neatly into either group: Animals consume food; Plants make food.
3.A.1.c. Use analogies, models, or drawings to represent that animals and plants have a great variety of body plans and internal structures that define the way they live, grow, survive, and reproduce.
3.B.1. Cells: Gather and organize data to defend or argue the proposition that all living things are cellular (composed of cells) and that cells carry out the basic life functions. 3.B.1.a. Use microscopes or other magnifying instruments to observe, describe, and compare the cellular composition of different body tissues and organs in a variety of organisms (animals and plants).
3.B.1.b. Based on data from readings and designed investigations, cite evidence to illustrate that the life functions of multicellular organisms (plant and animal) are carried out within complex systems of different tissues, organs and cells: Extracting energy from food; Getting rid of wastes; Making raw materials.
3.B.1.c. Based on research and examples from video technology explain that the repeated division of cells enables organisms to grow and make repairs.
3.B.1.d. Collect data from investigations using single celled organisms, such as yeast or algae to explain that a single cell carries out all the basic life functions of a multicellular organism: Reproducing; Extracting energy from food; Getting rid of wastes.
3.B.1.e. Based on data compiled from a number of lessons completed, take and defend a position on the statement 'The way in which cells function is the same in all organisms.'
3.B.2. Cells: Recognize and provide examples that human beings, like other organisms have complex body systems of cells, tissues and organs that interact to support an organism's growth and survival. 3.B.2.a. Describe and explain that the complex set of systems found in multicellular organisms are made up of different kinds of tissues and organs which are themselves composed of differentiated cells.
3.B.2.b. Select several body systems and explain the role of cells, tissues and organs that effectively carry out a vital function for the organism, such as: Obtaining food and providing energy (digestive, circulatory, respiratory); Defense (nervous, endocrine, circulatory, muscular, skeletal, immune); Reproduction (reproductive, endocrine, circulatory); Waste removal (excretory, respiratory, circulatory); Breathing (respiratory, circulatory).
3.B.2.c. Develop a response that explains the meaning of the statement, 'The specialization of cells serves the operation of the organs, and the organs serve the needs of the cells.'
3.B.2.d. Investigate ways in which the various organs and tissues function to serve the needs of cells for food, air, and waste removal.
3.C.1. Genetics: Explain the ways that genetic information is passed from parent to offspring in different organisms. 3.C.1.a. Investigate and explain that in some kinds of organisms, all the genes come from a single parent, whereas in organisms that have sexes, typically half of the genes come from each parent.
3.C.1.b. Investigate and explain that in sexual reproduction, a single specialized cell from a female (egg) merges with a specialized cell from a male (sperm) and the fertilized egg now has genetic information from each parent, that multiplies to form the complete organism composed of about a trillion cells, each of which contains the same genetic information.
3.C.1.c. Investigate organisms that reproduce asexually to identify what traits they receive from the parent.
3.C.1.e. Identify evidence to support the idea that there is greater variation among offspring of organisms that reproduce sexually than among those that reproduce asexually.
3.E.1. Flow of Matter and Energy: Explain that the transfer and transformation of matter and energy links organisms to one another and to their physical setting. 3.E.1.a. Cite evidence from research and observations that food provides molecules that serve as fuel and building materials for all organisms.
3.E.1.b. Cite evidence from research and observations that organisms that eat plants or animals break down what they have consumed (food) to produce the materials and energy they need to survive or store for later use.
3.E.1.c. Investigate and describe the processes that enable plants to use the energy from light to make sugars (food) from carbon dioxide and water.
3.E.1.e. Ask and seek answers to questions about the fact that transfer of matter between organisms continues indefinitely because organisms are decomposed after death to return food materials to the environment.
3.E.1.f. Provide evidence that supports the premise 'In the flow of matter system the total amount of matter remains constant even though its form and location change': Carbon cycle; Nitrogen (cycle); Food chains and food webs.
MD.4.0.Chemistry: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the composition, structure, and interactions of matter in order to support the predictability of structure and energy transformations.
Chemistry: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the composition, structure, and interactions of matter in order to support the predictability of structure and energy transformations.
4.A.1. Structure of Matter: Cite evidence to support the fact that all matter is made up of atoms, which are far too small to see directly through a microscope. 4.A.1.a. Recognize and describe that the atoms of each element are alike but different from atoms of other elements.
4.A.1.b. Recognize and describe that different arrangements of atoms into groups compose all substances.
4.A.1.c. Provide evidence from the periodic table, investigations and research to demonstrate that elements in the following groups have similar properties: Highly reactive metals, such as magnesium and sodium; Less-reactive metals, such as gold and silver; Highly reactive non-metals, such as chlorine, fluorine, and oxygen; Almost non-reactive gases, such as helium and neon.
4.A.1.d. Provide examples to illustrate that elements are substances that do not breakdown into smaller parts during normal investigations involving heating, exposure to electric current or reactions with acids.
4.A.1.e. Cite evidence to explain that all living and non-living things can be broken down to a set of known elements.
MD.6.0.Environmental Science: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of environmental factors (living and non-living) and analyze their impact from a local to a global perspective.
Environmental Science: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of environmental factors (living and non-living) and analyze their impact from a local to a global perspective.
6.A.1. Natural Resources and Human Needs: Recognize and explain the impact of a changing human population on the use of natural resources and on environmental quality. 6.A.1.a. Based on data identify and describe the positive and negative impacts of an increasing human population on the use of natural resources
6.B.1. Environmental Issues: Recognize and describe that environmental changes can have local, regional, and global consequences. 6.B.1.a. Identify and describe a local, regional, or global environmental issue.
6.B.1.b. Identify and describe that different individuals or groups are affected by an issue in different ways.