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GA.CC.L11-12RST.Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Craft and Structure L11-12RST4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11-12 texts and topics.
GA.SAP.Human Anatomy and Physiology
Human Anatomy and Physiology
SAP1. Students will analyze anatomical structures in relationship to their physiological functions. SAP1.c. Explain the role of homeostasis and its mechanisms as these relate to the body as a whole and predict the consequences of the failure to maintain homeostasis.
SAP1.d. Relate cellular metabolism and transport to homeostasis and cellular reproduction.
SAP1.e. Describe how structure and function are related in terms of cell and tissue types.
SAP2. Students will analyze the interdependence of the integumentary, skeletal, and muscular systems as these relate to the protection, support and movement of the human body. SAP2.b. Explain how the skeletal structures provide support and protection for tissues, and function together with the muscular system to make movements possible.
SAP3. Students will assess the integration and coordination of body functions and their dependence on the endocrine and nervous systems to regulate physiological activities. SAP3.a. Interpret interactions among hormones, senses, and nerves which make possible the coordination of functions of the body.
SAP3.c. Describe how the body perceives internal and external stimuli and responds to maintain a stable internal environment, as it relates to biofeedback.
SAP4. Students will analyze the physical, chemical, and biological properties of process systems as these relate to transportation, absorption and excretion, including the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory and immune systems. SAP4.a. Describe the chemical and physical mechanisms of digestion, elimination, transportation, and absorption within the body to change food and derive energy.
SAP4.b. Analyze, and explain the relationships between the respiratory and cardiovascular systems as they obtain oxygen needed for the oxidation of nutrients and removal of carbon dioxide.
SAP4.d. Examine various conditions that change normal body functions (e.g. tissue rejection, allergies, injury, diseases and disorders) and how the body responds.
SAP5. Students will analyze the role of the reproductive system as it pertains to the growth and development of humans. SAP5.a. Explain how the functions of the reproductive organs are regulated by hormonal interactions.
SAST1. Students will explain the tools used by astronomers to study electromagnetic radiation to determine composition, motions, and other physical attributes of astronomical objects. SAST1.c. Mathematically apply Newtonian gravity to celestial bodies to determine their masses and explain their motion (e.g. Kepler's Laws)
SAST2. Students will describe the scientific view of the origin of the universe, the evolution of matter and the development of resulting celestial objects. SAST2.a. Outline the main arguments and evidence in support of the standard cosmological model. (e.g. elements, solar systems, and universe)
SAST2.b. Describe the life cycle of a star and explain the role gravity and mass play in the brightness, life span, and end-stages of stars.
SAST2.c. Compare and contrast the major properties of the components of our solar system.
SAST3. Students will describe and explain the celestial sphere and astronomical observations made from the point of reference of the Earth. SAST3.a. Evaluate the effects of the relative positions of the Earth, moon, and sun on observable phenomena, e.g. phases of the moon, eclipses, seasons, and diurnal cycles.
SAST4. Students analyze the dynamic nature of astronomy by comparing and contrasting evidence supporting current views of the universe with historical views. SAST4.b. Explain the relevance of experimental contributions of scientists to the advancement of the field of astronomy.
SAST5. Students will evaluate the significance of energy transfers and energy transformations in understanding the universe. SAST5.a. Relate nuclear fusion reactions and mass-energy equivalence to the life cycle of stars.
SAST5.c. Analyze the energy relationships between the mass, power output, and life span of stars.
SAST5.d. Describe energy transfers and transformations associated with the motion and interactions of celestial bodies (e.g. orbits, binary pulsars, meteors, black holes, and galaxy mergers).
SB1. Students will analyze the nature of the relationships between structures and functions in living cells. SB1.a. Explain the role of cell organelles for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including the cell membrane, in maintaining homeostasis and cell reproduction.
SB1.d. Explain the impact of water on life processes (i.e., osmosis, diffusion).
SB2. Students will analyze how biological traits are passed on to successive generations. SB2.a. Distinguish between DNA and RNA.
SB2.b. Explain the role of DNA in storing and transmitting cellular information.
SB2.c. Using Mendel's laws, explain the role of meiosis in reproductive variability.
SB2.d. Describe the relationships between changes in DNA and potential appearance of new traits including: Alterations during replication; Insertions; Deletions; Substitutions; Mutagenic factors that can alter DNA; High energy radiation (x-rays and ultraviolet); Chemical.
SB2.f. Examine the use of DNA technology in forensics, medicine, and agriculture.
SB3. Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems. SB3.a. Explain the cycling of energy through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration.
SB3.b. Compare how structures and function vary between the six kingdoms (archaebacteria, eubacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals).
SB3.c. Examine the evolutionary basis of modern classification systems (archaebacteria, eubacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals).
SB3.d. Compare and contrast viruses with living organisms.
SB4. Students will assess the dependence of all organisms on one another and the flow of energy and matter within their ecosystems. SB4.b. Explain the flow of matter and energy through ecosystems by: Arranging components of a food chain according to energy flow; Comparing the quantity of energy in the steps of an energy pyramid; Explaining the need for cycling of major nutrients (C, O, H, N, P).
SB4.f. Relate animal adaptations, including behaviors, to the ability to survive stressful environmental conditions.
SB5. Students will evaluate the role of natural selection in the development of the theory of evolution. SB5.a. Trace the history of the theory.
SB5.b. Explain the history of life in terms of biodiversity, ancestry, and the rates of evolution.
SB5.d. Relate natural selection to changes in organisms.
SBO1. Students will use current plant phylogenetic principles and describe the structural changes used to delineate the plant divisions. SBO1.a. Describe the major structures and evolutionary changes of major organs, tissues, cells, and organelle types in nonvascular/seedless and vascular/seed plants.
SBO1.b. Identify and evaluate plant structures in relation to their functions.
SBO1.c. Use, compare, and contrast the methods and purposes of plant classification.
SBO2. Students will be able to identify and describe Georgia's major physiographic provinces and their natural plant communities. SBO2.a. Identify and describe four major regions (mountain, piedmont, coastal plain, salt marsh), the aquatic systems [freshwater, estuaries, and marine]) systems, and their natural plant (oak-hickory-pine, oak-pine, long leaf pine-wire grass, cord grass, algal) communities of Georgia.
SBO2.b. Use taxonomic keys to identify local flora and recognize major representative groups of the southeast.
SBO3. Students will explore the structures and processes necessary for the mutual survival of plants and animals. SBO3.a. Describe and relate plant structures (organs, tissues, cells, organelles) to plant processes (photosynthesis, respiration, transport, growth, reproduction, dispersal).
SBO5. Students will analyze the diversity of plant adaptations and responses to environmental extremes. SBO5.a. Describe the diversity of plants and their adaptations in relation to differing ecosystems and changing environments, both long term (climate) and short term (seasonal and diurnal).
SBO5.e. Explain the role of plant processes in the biosphere (i.e. energy and cycling of major nutrients (C, O, H, N, and P).
SC1. Students will analyze the nature of matter and its classifications. SC1.b. Identify substances based on chemical and physical properties.
SC1.c. Predict formulas for stable ionic compounds (binary and tertiary) based on balance of charges.
SC1.d. Use IUPAC nomenclature for both chemical names and formulas: Ionic compounds (Binary and tertiary); Covalent compounds (Binary and tertiary); Acidic compounds (Binary and tertiary).
SC2. Students will relate how the Law of Conservation of Matter is used to determine chemical composition in compounds and chemical reactions. SC2.a. Identify and balance the following types of chemical equations: Synthesis; Decomposition; Single Replacement; Double Replacement; Combustion.
SC2.b. Experimentally determine indicators of a chemical reaction specifically precipitation, gas evolution, water production, and changes in energy to the system.
SC2.c. Apply concepts of the mole and Avogadro's number to conceptualize and calculate: Empirical/molecular formulas; Mass, moles and molecules relationships; Molar volumes of gases. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game The Mole
SC2.f. Explain the role of equilibrium in chemical reactions.
SC3. Students will use the modern atomic theory to explain the characteristics of atoms. SC3.a. Discriminate between the relative size, charge, and position of protons, neutrons, and electrons in the atom.
SC3.b. Use the orbital configuration of neutral atoms to explain its effect on the atom's chemical properties.
SC3.c. Explain the relationship of the proton number to the element's identity.
SC3.d. Explain the relationship of isotopes to the relative abundance of atoms of a particular element.
SC3.e. Compare and contrast types of chemical bonds (i.e. ionic, covalent).
SC4. Students will use the organization of the Periodic Table to predict properties of elements. SC4.b. Compare and contrast trends in the chemical and physical properties of elements and their placement on the Periodic Table.
SC5. Students will understand that the rate at which a chemical reaction occurs can be affected by changing concentration, temperature, or pressure and the addition of a catalyst. SC5.a. Demonstrate the effects of changing concentration, temperature, and pressure on chemical reactions.
SC5.b. Investigate the effects of a catalyst on chemical reactions and apply it to everyday examples.
SC5.c. Explain the role of activation energy and degree of randomness in chemical reactions.
SC6. Students will understand the effects motion of atoms and molecules in chemical and physical processes. SC6.a. Compare and contrast atomic/molecular motion in solids, liquids, gases, and plasmas.
SC6.b. Collect data and calculate the amount of heat given off or taken in by chemical or physical processes. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Heat
SC6.c. Analyzing (both conceptually and quantitatively) flow of energy during change of state (phase).
SC7. Students will characterize the properties that describe solutions and the nature of acids and bases. SC7.a. Explain the process of dissolving in terms of solute/solvent interactions: Observe factors that effect the rate at which a solute dissolves in a specific solvent; Express concentrations as molarities; Prepare and properly label solutions of specified molar concentration; Relate molality to colligative properties.
SC7.b. Compare, contrast, and evaluate the nature of acids and bases: Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry Acid/Bases; Strong vs. weak acids/bases in terms of percent dissociation; Hydronium ion concentration; pH; Acid-Base neutralization.
GA.SCSh.Characteristics of Science
Characteristics of Science
SCSh2. Habits of Mind: Students will use standard safety practices for all classroom laboratory and field investigations. SCSh2.a. Follow correct procedures for use of scientific apparatus.
SCSh2.c. Follow correct protocol for identifying and reporting safety problems and violations.
SCSh3. Habits of Mind: Students will identify and investigate problems scientifically. SCSh3.d. Graphically compare and analyze data points and/or summary statistics.
SCSh7. The Nature of Science: Students analyze how scientific knowledge is developed. Students recognize that: SCSh7.b. Universal principles are discovered through observation and experimental verification.
SCSh8. The Nature of Science: Students will understand important features of the process of scientific inquiry. Students will apply the following to inquiry learning practices: SCSh8.f. Science disciplines and traditions differ from one another in what is studied, techniques used, and outcomes sought.
SEC1. Students will analyze how biotic and abiotic factors interact to affect the distribution of species and the diversity of life on Earth. SEC1.c. Investigate factors that lead to the species richness of an ecosystem and describe the importance of biodiversity.
SEC1.d. Relate the role of natural selection to organismal adaptations that are specific to their habitats and describe some examples of coevolution.
SEC2. Students will investigate factors influencing population density, dispersion, and demographics. SEC2.c. Describe the different life history and reproductive strategies that have evolved in organisms.
SEC3. Students will explore and analyze community interactions. SEC3.a. Compare and contrast species interactions (e.g. predation, parasitism, mutualism, commensalism, and competition) and adaptations that have evolved in response to interspecific selective pressures.
SEC4. Students will analyze biogeochemical cycles and the flow of energy in ecosystems. SEC4.a. Compare and contrast the carbon, water, oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles, describing their flow through biotic and abiotic pools, including human influences.
SEC4.b. Apply the first and second laws of thermodynamics and the law of conservation of matter to the flow of energy and matter in ecosystems.
SEC4.c. Predict the flow of energy in the living world by constructing food chains, webs and pyramids for various ecosystems.
SEC5. Students will assess the impact of human activities on the natural world, and research how ecological theory can address current issues facing our society, locally and globally. SEC5.a. Describe the sources, environmental impacts, and mitigation measures for major primary and secondary pollutants. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
SEC5.c. Evaluate the causes and impacts on ecosystems of natural and anthropogenic climate change. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
SEN2. Students will investigate the reasons for insect success. SEN2.a. Investigate the insect body plan and compare and contrast to other arthropods (e.g., Arachnida, Crustacea).
SES1. Students will investigate the composition and formation of Earth systems, including the Earth's relationship to the solar system. SES1.a. Describe the early evolution of the Earth and solar system, including the formation of Earth's solid layers (core, mantle, crust), the distribution of major elements, the origin of internal heat sources, and the mechanism by which heat transfer drives plate tectonics.
SES1.b. Explain how the composition of the Earth's crust, mantle and core is determined and compare it to that of other solar system objects.
SES1.c. Describe how the decay of radioactive isotopes is used to determine the age of rocks, Earth, and solar system.
SES1.e. Identify the transformations and major reservoirs that make up the rock cycle, hydrologic cycle, carbon cycle, and other important geochemical cycles.
SES2. Students will understand how plate tectonics creates certain geologic features, materials, and hazards. SES2.a. Distinguish among types of plate tectonic settings produced by plates diverging, converging, and sliding past each other.
SES2.b. Relate modern and ancient geologic features to each kind of plate tectonic setting.
SES2.c. Relate certain geologic hazards to specific plate tectonic settings.
SES2.d. Associate specific plate tectonic settings with the production of particular groups of igneous and metamorphic rocks and mineral resources.
SES2.e. Explain how plate tectonics creates and destroys sedimentary basins through time.
SES3. Students will explore the actions of water, wind, ice, and gravity that create landforms and systems of landforms (landscapes). SES3.a. Describe how surface water and groundwater act as the major agents of physical and chemical weathering.
SES3.b. Explain how soil results from weathering and biological processes acting on parent rock.
SES3.d. Relate the past and present actions of ice, wind, and water to landform distribution and landscape evolution.
SES3.e. Explain the processes that transport and deposit material in terrestrial and marine sedimentary basins, which result, over time, in sedimentary rock.
SES4. Students will understand how rock relationships and fossils are used to reconstruct the Earth's past. SES4.b. Interpret the geologic history of a succession of rocks and unconformities.
SES4.d. Explain how sedimentary rock units are correlated within and across regions by a variety of methods (e.g., geologic map relationships, the principle of fossil succession, radiometric dating, and paleomagnetism).
SES5. Students will investigate the interaction of insolation and Earth systems to produce weather and climate. SES5.a. Explain how latitudinal variations in solar heating create atmospheric and ocean currents that redistribute heat globally. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
SES5.b. Explain the relationship between air masses and the surfaces over which they form. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
SES5.c. Relate weather patterns to interactions among ocean currents, air masses, and topography. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
SES5.d. Describe how temperature and precipitation produce the pattern of climate regions (classes) on Earth. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
SES5.e. Describe the hazards associated with extreme weather events and climate change (e.g., hurricanes, tornadoes, El Nino/La Nina, global warming). Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
SES5.f. Relate changes in global climate to variation in Earth/Sun relationships and to natural and anthropogenic modification of atmospheric composition. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
SES6. Students will explain how life on Earth responds to and shapes Earth systems. SES6.a. Relate the nature and distribution of life on Earth, including humans, to the chemistry and availability of water.
SES6.c. Explain how geological and ecological processes interact through time to cycle matter and energy, and how human activity alters the rates of these processes (e.g., fossil fuel formation and combustion). Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
SES6.d. Describe how fossils provide a record of shared ancestry, evolution, and extinction that is best explained by the mechanism of natural selection.
SEV1. Students will investigate the flow of energy and cycling of matter within an ecosystem and relate these phenomena to human society. SEV1.a. Interpret biogeochemical cycles including hydrologic, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, and carbon cycles. Recognize that energy is not recycled in ecosystems.
SEV1.b. Relate energy changes to food chains, food webs, and to trophic levels in a generalized ecosystem, recognizing that entropy is a primary factor in the loss of usable food energy during movement up the trophic levels.
SEV1.d. Relate the cycling of matter and the flow of energy to the Laws of Conservation of matter and energy. Identify the role and importance of decomposers in the recycling process.
SEV1.e. Distinguish between abiotic and biotic factors in an ecosystem and describe how matter and energy move between these.
SEV2. Students will demonstrate an understanding that the Earth is one interconnected system. SEV2.a. Describe how the abiotic components (water, air, and energy) affect the biosphere.
SEV2.c. Characterize the components that define a Biome (Abiotic Factors - to include precipitation, temperature and soils; Biotic Factors - plant and animal adaptations that create success in that biome).
SEV2.d. Characterize the components that define fresh-water and marine systems (Abiotic Factors - to include light, dissolved oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, pH and substrate; Biotic Factors - plant and animal adaptations characteristic to that system). Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
SEV3. Students will describe stability and change in ecosystems. SEV3.e. Describe interactions between individuals (i.e. mutualism, commensalisms, parasitism, predation, and competition).
SEV4. Students will understand and describe availability, allocation and conservation of energy and other resources SEV4.c. Describe how energy and other resource utilization impact the environment and recognize that individuals as well as larger entities (businesses, governments, etc.) have impact on energy efficiency. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
SEV5. Students will recognize that human beings are part of the global ecosystem and will evaluate the effects of human activities and technology on ecosystems. SEV5.e. Describe the effects and potential implications of pollution and resource depletion on the environment at the local and global levels (e.g. air and water pollution, solid waste disposal, depletion of the stratospheric ozone, global warming, and land uses). Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
SFS2. Students will use various scientific techniques to analyze physical and trace evidence. SFS2.e. Determine the appropriate uses of chromatography and spectroscopy in evidence analysis.
SFS3. Students will analyze the use of toxicology, serology, and DNA technology in forensic investigations. SFS3.f. Compare short tandem repeat patterns (STR) and relate to identifying the DNA of an individual.
SFS3.g. Explain the use of the DNA database for DNA profiling.
SG1. Students will interpret the geologic history of the Earth. SG1.a. Describe the formation and evolution of the Earth including the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere as driven by internal/external energy sources (i.e. solar, radioactive, gravitational).
SG1.b. Use fossils, radiometric dating and stratigraphic relationships and geologic maps (e.g. cross cutting, superposition, uniformitarianism) to interpret Earth's history.
SG2. Students will interpret the geologic conditions and processes that form different rocks and minerals. SG2.a. Describe how minerals form under diverse geological conditions.
SG2.b. Distinguish between the processes that form plutonic (intrusive) and volcanic (extrusive) igneous rocks of differing compositions, including magmatic differentiation.
SG2.c. Differentiate between processes that form various types of sedimentary rocks.
SG2.d. Interpret the changes in common sedimentary and igneous rocks under a variety of metamorphic conditions.
SG3. Students will investigate the evidence for plate tectonics; evaluate the importance of Earth's internal processes and assess the relationship between plate tectonic boundary type and certain disasters such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. SG3.a. Analyze the mechanisms that drive plate motion, the different types of plate boundaries, and how boundary type relates to mountain building, earthquakes, volcanism, and features such as island arcs, hot spots, and mid ocean ridges.
SG3.b. Compare and contrast folded, fault-block, and volcanic mountains and analyze their relationship to plate tectonic setting.
SG3.d. Classify volcanoes, using their interior/exterior features, magma composition and their plate tectonic settings and assess current volcanic hazards in the United States.
SG3.e. Research current technology that improves our ability to predict natural disasters and mitigate their effects.
SG4. Students will evaluate how climate systems affect landforms on the surface of the Earth. SG4.a. Analyze the effects of climate on weathering processes and soil formation.
SG4.b. Characterize the geologic processes and resulting landforms of desert and glacial areas.
SG4.c. Distinguish specific landforms and geologic features on topographic maps.
SG4.e. Investigate the characteristics, geologic processes, and human impacts associated with surface and groundwater as a natural resource in Georgia. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
SG5. Students will apply geologic knowledge to the use of resources in the Earth and the control of human impacts on Earth's systems. SG5.a. Investigate the geologic origin, distribution, limitations, and economic importance of mineral resources, including those obtained in Georgia.
SM1. Students will relate the formation, structure and composition of Earth's atmosphere to the processes that cause weather. SM1.b. Examine the chemical composition, location and characteristics of the layers of Earth's present day atmosphere.
SM1.e. Compare the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere to characteristic atmospheric conditions.
SM2. Students will investigate energy transfer to types of clouds formed, precipitation, and air masses. SM2.a. Explain the relationship between air masses and the areas over which they form.
SM2.c. Relate weather events to the energy transfer within the Earth's atmosphere.
SM3. Students will explore the science of weather forecasting. SM3.a. Analyze a surface weather map.
SM3.b. Predict weather for a specific location using knowledge of air mass, frontal, and cyclone movement.
SM3.c. Investigate and describe the formation of severe weather including severe thunderstorms, hurricane, tornadoes and their role in energy transfer.
SM4. Students will analyze the relationship of weather and society. SM4.a. Analyze the implications of severe weather events (droughts, floods, thunderstorms, tornadoes, winter weather, hurricanes, etc.) on local, national, and global economies.
SM4.b. Interpret the relationship between weather and pollution (smog, ground level ozone, acid rain, etc.) and the impact of pollution on the economy, health, and the environment. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
SM4.d. Compare and contrast the reasons for decreasing stratospheric ozone and its implications to humans. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
SM4.e. Evaluate political, social, and economic decisions and their relationship to the development and/or reduction of acid rain, smog, and the urban heat island effect.
SM5. Students will differentiate the climates of Earth, how climate changes through time, and the theories regarding current climate change. SM5.a. Compare and contrast the various climates found on Earth. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
SM5.b. Demonstrate knowledge of the reasons for continual climate change. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
SM5.c. Evaluate the effects of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on climate. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
SM5.d. Analyze current methods of climate prediction. (Predictions of ENSO, NAO, long-range outlooks, etc.) Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
SM5.e. Explore radiative equilibrium and demonstrate the differences between the greenhouse effect and global warming. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
SM5.f. Judge the current theories explaining global warming and argue the potential implications of global warming on global weather patterns and severe weather events. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
SMI1. Students will analyze different types of microorganisms and their defining characteristics. SMI1.a. Distinguish between different kinds of microorganisms based on cellular structure, molecular biology and biochemical composition.
SMI1.b. Describe how viruses differ from other parasitic microorganisms.
SMI1.c. Compare relative sizes of microorganisms, different types of cell shapes, and various methods used to visualize microorganisms.
SMI2. Students will examine structural components of microbes and their functions. SMI2.a. Investigate structural properties of microbial membranes and functions associated with these membranes.
SMI2.c. Examine intracellular organization in microbes and explain how these structures play roles in energy generation, transcription, translation, DNA replication and cellular locomotion.
SMI3. Students will examine different ways in which microbial cells generate energy for growth and reproduction. SMI3.a. Explain different types of energy generation used by microbes, including respiration, photosynthesis, and lithotrophy.
SMI3.b. Describe how microorganisms differ with respect to their nutritional requirements for growth.
SMI4. Students will investigate molecular mechanisms involved in gene expression in microbes. SMI4.b. Examine how DNA rearrangements occur in bacteria.
SMI5. Students will compare and contrast parameters affecting microbial growth, ways of controlling growth of microorganisms, and examine the effects that physicochemical factors can have on microbes. SMI5.b. Describe environmental factors that influence microbial growth and how these factors vary for different species.
SMI5.e. Describe how exposure to certain chemicals or radiation increase rates of heritable mutations in microorganisms.
SMI5.f. Examine the evolution and spread of antibiotic resistant pathogens.
SMI6. Students will analyze the impact of microorganisms in the environment and the use of microbes in biotechnology, agriculture, and industry. SMI6.a. Explain the prevalence and diversity of microbes in various environments (e.g., hot springs, arctic ice, hypersaline environments, alkaline soils, acid mine drainage.)
SMI6.b. Relate biotic and abiotic factors to the development of microbial populations and diversity.
SMI7. Students will analyze symbiotic and pathogenic relationships in host-microbe interactions. SMI7.b. Describe examples of pathogenic microorganisms and how they cause disease in plants and animals.
SMI7.c. Compare mechanisms of how communicable diseases are spread among individuals within a population and how genetic changes in pathogenic microbes (such as influenza virus) result in new outbreaks of disease.
SMS1. Students will examine the role of chemistry, physics, and engineering in the field of materials science. SMS1.a. Analyze the proper classifications of materials (i.e., polymers, ceramics, metals and alloys, and composites) by identifying the similarities and differences between them.
SMS2. Students will examine the chemistry and composition of metals and alloys and their use in society. SMS2.a. Differentiate between metals and alloy types and the effects of impurities on their crystal structure.
SMS2.b. Describe the types of strengthening mechanisms for metals including diffusion, heat treating, superheating, supercooling, and their effects on crystal structure (microstructures)
SMS2.e. Examine how metals are characterized using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards and other methods (i.e., microscope, spectra).
SMS2.f. Examine the use of metals and alloys in society, such as high temperature super alloys, and their impact on the environment.
SO1. Students will identify characteristics, physical features, and boundaries of the oceans. SO1.a. Trace the development of the theory of plate tectonics.
SO1.b. Explain how the dynamic events at plate boundaries influence oceans and continents.
SO2. Students will relate how the oceans are integral to all life on earth and how biogeochemical processes in the oceans influence the entire planet. SO2.a. Explain how the hydrologic cycle integrates the oceans and the land.
SO3. Students will analyze how weather and climate are influenced by the oceans. SO3.a. Identify general global patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation including variations such as El Nino and monsoons. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
SO3.c. Describe the effects of tilt of the earth, solar energy inputs, and heat capacity of land and oceans on the resulting patterns of weather and climate. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
SO3.d. Explain relationships between climate change, the greenhouse effect, and the consequences of global warming on the ocean. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
SO4. Students will investigate waves and tides and analyze their influence on coastal processes. SO4.a. Explain how waves are generated. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
SO4.c. Describe the role of waves, tides, and sea level change on the physical structure of the coast.
SO4.e. Identify natural hazards (e.g., tsunamis, hurricanes, and sea level change) and their impact on coastal communities.
SO5. Students will analyze how the unique attributes of seawater determine the types of marine organisms and the ecology of marine food webs. SO5.a. Compare and contrast the physical and chemical structure of pure water and seawater. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
SO5.c. Describe patterns and relationships between biotic and abiotic factors among marine ecosystems, including estuaries, coral reefs, open waters, and the deep ocean. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
SO6. Students will identify how humans use the oceans for food, commerce, and energy and will evaluate the potential for abuse in the absence of responsible stewardship. SO6.a. Describe how physical, geological, and biological resources are extracted from the oceans, and assess the consequences for marine ecosystems. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
SO6.c. Explain how the oceans are used for recreation and transportation, and evaluate their impacts on marine ecosystems. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
SO6.d. Analyze issues, policies, and laws that promote responsible stewardship of the oceans, including trade, fisheries, transportation, and resources. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
SP1. Students will analyze the relationships between force, mass, gravity, and the motion of objects. SP1.a. Calculate average velocity, instantaneous velocity, and acceleration in a given frame of reference.
SP1.b. Compare and contrast scalar and vector quantities.
SP1.c. Compare graphically and algebraically the relationships among position, velocity, acceleration, and time.
SP1.d. Measure and calculate the magnitude of frictional forces and Newton's three Laws of Motion.
SP1.f. Measure and calculate two-dimensional motion (projectile and circular) by using component vectors.
SP1.g. Measure and calculate centripetal force.
SP1.h. Determine the conditions required to maintain a body in a state of static equilibrium.
SP2. Students will evaluate the significance of energy in understanding the structure of matter and the universe. SP2.b. Explain how the instability of radioactive isotopes results in spontaneous nuclear reactions.
SP3. Students will evaluate the forms and transformations of energy. SP3.a. Analyze, evaluate, and apply the principle of conservation of energy and measure the components of work-energy theorem by: describing total energy in a closed system; identifying different types of potential energy; calculating kinetic energy given mass and velocity; relating transformations between potential and kinetic energy. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Heat
SP3.b. Explain the relationship between matter and energy.
SP3.c. Measure and calculate the vector nature of momentum.
SP3.d. Compare and contrast elastic and inelastic collisions.
SP3.g. Analyze and measure power.
SP4. Students will analyze the properties and applications of waves. SP4.a. Explain the processes that results in the production and energy transfer of electromagnetic waves.
SP4.b. Experimentally determine the behavior of waves in various media in terms of reflection, refraction, and diffraction of waves.
SP4.c. Explain the relationship between the phenomena of interference and the principle of superposition. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Sound
SP5. Students will evaluate relationships between electrical and magnetic forces. SP5.b. Determine the relationship among potential difference, current, and resistance in a direct current circuit.
SP5.c. Determine equivalent resistances in series and parallel circuits.
SP5.d. Determine the relationship between moving electric charges and magnetic fields.
SP6. The student will describe the corrections to Newtonian physics given by quantum mechanics and relativity when matter is very small, moving fast compared to the speed of light, or very large. SP6.d. Describe the gravitational field surrounding a large mass and its effect on a ray of light.
SPS1. Students will investigate our current understanding of the atom. SPS1.a. Examine the structure of the atom in terms of: proton, electron, and neutron locations; atomic mass and atomic number; atoms with different numbers of neutrons (isotopes); explain the relationship of the proton number to the element's identity.
SPS10. Students will investigate the properties of electricity and magnetism. SPS10.b. Explain the flow of electrons in terms of: alternating and direct current; the relationship among voltage, resistance and current; simple series and parallel circuits.
SPS10.c. Investigate applications of magnetism and/or its relationship to the movement of electrical charge as it relates to: electromagnets; simple motors; permanent magnets.
SPS2. Students will explore the nature of matter, its classifications, and the system for naming types of matter. SPS2.b. Predict formulas for stable binary ionic compounds based on balance of charges.
SPS2.c. Use IUPAC nomenclature for transition between chemical names and chemical formulas of: binary ionic compounds (containing representative elements); binary covalent compounds (i.e. carbon dioxide, carbon tetrachloride).
SPS2.e. Apply the Law of Conservation of Matter by balancing the following types of chemical equations: Synthesis; Decomposition; Single Replacement; Double Replacement.
SPS3. Students will distinguish the characteristics and components of radioactivity. SPS3.d. Describe nuclear energy, its practical application as an alternative energy source, and its potential problems.
SPS4. Students will investigate the arrangement of the Periodic Table. SPS4.a. Determine the trends of the following: Number of valence electrons; Types of ions formed by representative elements; Location of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids; Phases at room temperature.
SPS5. Students will compare and contrast the phases of matter as they relate to atomic and molecular motion. SPS5.a. Compare and contrast the atomic/molecular motion of solids, liquids, gases and plasmas.
SPS5.b. Relate temperature, pressure, and volume of gases to the behavior of gases.
SPS6. Students will investigate the properties of solutions. SPS6.a. Describe solutions in terms of: solute/solvent; conductivity; concentration.
SPS6.d. Compare and contrast the components and properties of acids and bases.
SPS7. Students will relate transformations and flow of energy within a system. SPS7.a. Identify energy transformations within a system (e.g. lighting of a match).
SPS7.c. Determine the heat capacity of a substance using mass, specific heat, and temperature. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Heat
SPS8. Students will determine relationships among force, mass, and motion. SPS8.a. Calculate velocity and acceleration.
SPS8.b. Apply Newton's three laws to everyday situations by explaining the following: Inertia; Relationship between force, mass and acceleration; Equal and opposite forces.
SPS8.c. Relate falling objects to gravitational force
SPS8.d. Explain the difference in mass and weight.
SPS8.e. Calculate amounts of work and mechanical advantage using simple machines.
SPS9. Students will investigate the properties of waves. SPS9.a. Recognize that all waves transfer energy.
SPS9.b. Relate frequency and wavelength to the energy of different types of electromagnetic waves and mechanical waves.
SPS9.c. Compare and contrast the characteristics of electromagnetic and mechanical (sound) waves.
SPS9.d. Investigate the phenomena of reflection, refraction, interference, and diffraction. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Sound
SPS9.f. Explain the Doppler Effect in terms of everyday interactions. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Sound
SZ1. Students will derive the phylogeny of animal taxa (monophyletic clades in a cladogram) using informative characteristics. SZ1.a. Construct a classification of representative animal taxa including: Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Rotifera, Mollusca, Arthropoda (Mandibulata, Chelicerata, and Crustacea), Bryozoa, Brachiopoda, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Urochordata, Cephalochordata, and Vertebrata.
SZ2. Students will explain the evolutionary history of animals over the geological history of Earth. SZ2.a. Outline the geological history of Earth and discuss the major environmental changes that have occurred over time.
SZ2.b. Explain the concepts evolution, adaptation, natural selection, convergence, and speciation.
SZ3. Students will compare form and function relationships within animal groups (clades) and across key taxa. SZ3.a. Explain the similarities and differences among major body plans (e.g., asymmetry, radial and bilateral symmetry).
SZ3.b. Compare and contrast taxa based on morphological and genetic characters.
SZ5. Students will evaluate the relationships between humans and other animals. SZ5.d. Investigate how moral, legal, societal, political, and economic decisions impact animal diversity with short-term and long-term effects. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans