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GA.CC.L9-10RST.Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas L9-10RST7. Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
L9-10RST9. Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts.
Craft and Structure L9-10RST4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics.
L9-10RST5. Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, energy).
GA.CC.W9-10HST.Writing Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Writing Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Research to Build and Present Knowledge W9-10HST7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
Production and Distribution of Writing W9-10HST4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Text Types and Purposes W9-10HST2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. W9-10HST2.d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic and convey a style appropriate to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
W9-10HST2.f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
GA.SAP.Human Anatomy and Physiology
Human Anatomy and Physiology
SAP1. Students will analyze anatomical structures in relationship to their physiological functions. SAP1.b. Investigate the interdependence of the various body systems to each other and to the body as a whole.
SAP1.c. Explain the role of homeostasis and its mechanisms as these relate to the body as a whole and predict the consequences of the failure to maintain homeostasis.
SAP1.d. Relate cellular metabolism and transport to homeostasis and cellular reproduction.
SAP1.e. Describe how structure and function are related in terms of cell and tissue types.
SAP2. Students will analyze the interdependence of the integumentary, skeletal, and muscular systems as these relate to the protection, support and movement of the human body. SAP2.a. Relate the structure of the integumentary system to its functional role in protecting the body and maintaining homeostasis.
SAP2.b. Explain how the skeletal structures provide support and protection for tissues, and function together with the muscular system to make movements possible.
SAP3. Students will assess the integration and coordination of body functions and their dependence on the endocrine and nervous systems to regulate physiological activities. SAP3.a. Interpret interactions among hormones, senses, and nerves which make possible the coordination of functions of the body.
SAP3.b. Investigate the physiology of electrochemical impulses and neural integration and trace the pathway of an impulse, relating biochemical changes involved in the conduction of the impulse.
SAP3.c. Describe how the body perceives internal and external stimuli and responds to maintain a stable internal environment, as it relates to biofeedback.
SAP4. Students will analyze the physical, chemical, and biological properties of process systems as these relate to transportation, absorption and excretion, including the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory and immune systems. SAP4.a. Describe the chemical and physical mechanisms of digestion, elimination, transportation, and absorption within the body to change food and derive energy.
SAP4.b. Analyze, and explain the relationships between the respiratory and cardiovascular systems as they obtain oxygen needed for the oxidation of nutrients and removal of carbon dioxide.
SAP4.c. Relate the role of the urinary system to regulation of body wastes (i.e. water-electrolyte balance, volume of body fluids).
SAP4.d. Examine various conditions that change normal body functions (e.g. tissue rejection, allergies, injury, diseases and disorders) and how the body responds.
SAP4.e. Describe the effects of aging on body systems.
SAP5. Students will analyze the role of the reproductive system as it pertains to the growth and development of humans. SAP5.a. Explain how the functions of the reproductive organs are regulated by hormonal interactions.
SAP5.b. Describe the stages of human embryology and gestation including investigation of gestational and congenital disorders (e.g. ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, cleft palate, hydrocephaly, fetal alcohol syndrome).
SAP5.c. Describe the stages of development from birth to adulthood (i.e. neonatal period, infancy, childhood, adolescence and puberty, and maturity).
SAST1. Students will explain the tools used by astronomers to study electromagnetic radiation to determine composition, motions, and other physical attributes of astronomical objects. SAST1.a. Explain the challenges faced by astronomers due to the properties of light and the vast distances in the cosmos.
SAST1.b. Evaluate the types of telescopes used by astronomers for examining different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation and compare and contrast the uses and advantages of each (e.g. radio, visible, gamma ray, reflector, and refractor).
SAST1.c. Mathematically apply Newtonian gravity to celestial bodies to determine their masses and explain their motion (e.g. Kepler's Laws)
SAST1.e. Quantitatively analyze data from telescopes (e.g. spectra, multi-wavelength photometry, and images) and/or other astronomical sources (e.g. tide tables, sky charts).
SAST2. Students will describe the scientific view of the origin of the universe, the evolution of matter and the development of resulting celestial objects. SAST2.a. Outline the main arguments and evidence in support of the standard cosmological model. (e.g. elements, solar systems, and universe)
SAST2.b. Describe the life cycle of a star and explain the role gravity and mass play in the brightness, life span, and end-stages of stars.
SAST2.c. Compare and contrast the major properties of the components of our solar system.
SAST3. Students will describe and explain the celestial sphere and astronomical observations made from the point of reference of the Earth. SAST3.a. Evaluate the effects of the relative positions of the Earth, moon, and sun on observable phenomena, e.g. phases of the moon, eclipses, seasons, and diurnal cycles.
SAST4. Students analyze the dynamic nature of astronomy by comparing and contrasting evidence supporting current views of the universe with historical views. SAST4.a. Evaluate the impact that technological advances, as an agent of change, have had on our modern view of the solar system and universe.
SAST4.b. Explain the relevance of experimental contributions of scientists to the advancement of the field of astronomy.
SAST5. Students will evaluate the significance of energy transfers and energy transformations in understanding the universe. SAST5.a. Relate nuclear fusion reactions and mass-energy equivalence to the life cycle of stars.
SAST5.c. Analyze the energy relationships between the mass, power output, and life span of stars.
SAST5.d. Describe energy transfers and transformations associated with the motion and interactions of celestial bodies (e.g. orbits, binary pulsars, meteors, black holes, and galaxy mergers).
SAST6. Students will explore connections between cosmic phenomena and conditions necessary for life. SAST6.c. Describe signatures of life on other worlds and early Earth.
SAST6.d. Explain how astronomical hazards and global atmospheric changes have impacted the evolution of life on Earth.
SB1. Students will analyze the nature of the relationships between structures and functions in living cells. SB1.a. Explain the role of cell organelles for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including the cell membrane, in maintaining homeostasis and cell reproduction.
SB1.b. Explain how enzymes function as catalysts.
SB1.c. Identify the function of the four major macromolecules (i.e., carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids).
SB1.d. Explain the impact of water on life processes (i.e., osmosis, diffusion).
SB2. Students will analyze how biological traits are passed on to successive generations. SB2.a. Distinguish between DNA and RNA.
SB2.b. Explain the role of DNA in storing and transmitting cellular information.
SB2.c. Using Mendel's laws, explain the role of meiosis in reproductive variability.
SB2.d. Describe the relationships between changes in DNA and potential appearance of new traits including: Alterations during replication; Insertions; Deletions; Substitutions; Mutagenic factors that can alter DNA; High energy radiation (x-rays and ultraviolet); Chemical.
SB2.e. Compare the advantages of sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction in different situations.
SB2.f. Examine the use of DNA technology in forensics, medicine, and agriculture.
SB3. Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems. SB3.a. Explain the cycling of energy through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration.
SB3.b. Compare how structures and function vary between the six kingdoms (archaebacteria, eubacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals).
SB3.c. Examine the evolutionary basis of modern classification systems (archaebacteria, eubacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals).
SB3.d. Compare and contrast viruses with living organisms.
SB4. Students will assess the dependence of all organisms on one another and the flow of energy and matter within their ecosystems. SB4.a. Investigate the relationships among organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and biomes.
SB4.b. Explain the flow of matter and energy through ecosystems by: Arranging components of a food chain according to energy flow; Comparing the quantity of energy in the steps of an energy pyramid; Explaining the need for cycling of major nutrients (C, O, H, N, P).
SB4.d. Assess and explain human activities that influence and modify the environment such as global warming, population growth, pesticide use, and water and power consumption.
SB4.e. Relate plant adaptations, including tropisms, to the ability to survive stressful environmental conditions.
SB4.f. Relate animal adaptations, including behaviors, to the ability to survive stressful environmental conditions.
SB5. Students will evaluate the role of natural selection in the development of the theory of evolution. SB5.a. Trace the history of the theory.
SB5.b. Explain the history of life in terms of biodiversity, ancestry, and the rates of evolution.
SB5.c. Explain how fossil and biochemical evidence support the theory.
SB5.d. Relate natural selection to changes in organisms.
SBO1. Students will use current plant phylogenetic principles and describe the structural changes used to delineate the plant divisions. SBO1.a. Describe the major structures and evolutionary changes of major organs, tissues, cells, and organelle types in nonvascular/seedless and vascular/seed plants.
SBO1.b. Identify and evaluate plant structures in relation to their functions.
SBO1.c. Use, compare, and contrast the methods and purposes of plant classification.
SBO2. Students will be able to identify and describe Georgia's major physiographic provinces and their natural plant communities. SBO2.a. Identify and describe four major regions (mountain, piedmont, coastal plain, salt marsh), the aquatic systems [freshwater, estuaries, and marine]) systems, and their natural plant (oak-hickory-pine, oak-pine, long leaf pine-wire grass, cord grass, algal) communities of Georgia.
SBO2.b. Use taxonomic keys to identify local flora and recognize major representative groups of the southeast.
SBO3. Students will explore the structures and processes necessary for the mutual survival of plants and animals. SBO3.a. Describe and relate plant structures (organs, tissues, cells, organelles) to plant processes (photosynthesis, respiration, transport, growth, reproduction, dispersal).
SBO4. Students will explore the defense systems of plants and recognize the impact of plant diseases on the biosphere. SBO4.a. Identify plant diseases and management strategies.
SBO4.b. Examine how plant diseases affect humans and animals.
SBO4.c. Examine how plants respond to diseases caused by pathogens (i.e. insects, fungi, bacteria, viruses) and attempt to protect themselves from those disease causing agents.
SBO4.d. Examine the economic and social impact of plant diseases.
SBO5. Students will analyze the diversity of plant adaptations and responses to environmental extremes. SBO5.a. Describe the diversity of plants and their adaptations in relation to differing ecosystems and changing environments, both long term (climate) and short term (seasonal and diurnal).
SBO5.b. Examine plant growth and development in relation to plant hormones and responses to external signals such as light, gravity, and touch.
SBO5.d. Analyze how human activities impact plants and the sustainability of plant communities.
SBO5.e. Explain the role of plant processes in the biosphere (i.e. energy and cycling of major nutrients (C, O, H, N, and P).
SBO6. Students will analyze the economic and ecological importance of plants in society. SBO6.b. Explain how plants impact the environment providing diverse habitats for birds, insects, and other wildlife in ecosystems.
SC1. Students will analyze the nature of matter and its classifications. SC1.b. Identify substances based on chemical and physical properties.
SC1.c. Predict formulas for stable ionic compounds (binary and tertiary) based on balance of charges.
SC1.d. Use IUPAC nomenclature for both chemical names and formulas: Ionic compounds (Binary and tertiary); Covalent compounds (Binary and tertiary); Acidic compounds (Binary and tertiary).
SC2. Students will relate how the Law of Conservation of Matter is used to determine chemical composition in compounds and chemical reactions. SC2.a. Identify and balance the following types of chemical equations: Synthesis; Decomposition; Single Replacement; Double Replacement; Combustion.
SC2.b. Experimentally determine indicators of a chemical reaction specifically precipitation, gas evolution, water production, and changes in energy to the system.
SC2.c. Apply concepts of the mole and Avogadro's number to conceptualize and calculate: Empirical/molecular formulas; Mass, moles and molecules relationships; Molar volumes of gases. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game The Mole
SC2.f. Explain the role of equilibrium in chemical reactions.
SC3. Students will use the modern atomic theory to explain the characteristics of atoms. SC3.a. Discriminate between the relative size, charge, and position of protons, neutrons, and electrons in the atom.
SC3.b. Use the orbital configuration of neutral atoms to explain its effect on the atom's chemical properties.
SC3.c. Explain the relationship of the proton number to the element's identity.
SC3.d. Explain the relationship of isotopes to the relative abundance of atoms of a particular element.
SC3.e. Compare and contrast types of chemical bonds (i.e. ionic, covalent).
SC4. Students will use the organization of the Periodic Table to predict properties of elements. SC4.b. Compare and contrast trends in the chemical and physical properties of elements and their placement on the Periodic Table.
SC5. Students will understand that the rate at which a chemical reaction occurs can be affected by changing concentration, temperature, or pressure and the addition of a catalyst. SC5.a. Demonstrate the effects of changing concentration, temperature, and pressure on chemical reactions.
SC5.b. Investigate the effects of a catalyst on chemical reactions and apply it to everyday examples.
SC5.c. Explain the role of activation energy and degree of randomness in chemical reactions.
SC6. Students will understand the effects motion of atoms and molecules in chemical and physical processes. SC6.a. Compare and contrast atomic/molecular motion in solids, liquids, gases, and plasmas.
SC6.b. Collect data and calculate the amount of heat given off or taken in by chemical or physical processes. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Heat
SC6.c. Analyzing (both conceptually and quantitatively) flow of energy during change of state (phase).
SC7. Students will characterize the properties that describe solutions and the nature of acids and bases. SC7.a. Explain the process of dissolving in terms of solute/solvent interactions: Observe factors that effect the rate at which a solute dissolves in a specific solvent; Express concentrations as molarities; Prepare and properly label solutions of specified molar concentration; Relate molality to colligative properties.
SC7.b. Compare, contrast, and evaluate the nature of acids and bases: Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry Acid/Bases; Strong vs. weak acids/bases in terms of percent dissociation; Hydronium ion concentration; pH; Acid-Base neutralization.
GA.SCSh.Characteristics of Science
Characteristics of Science
SCSh1. Habits of Mind: Students will evaluate the importance of curiosity, honesty, openness, and skepticism in science. SCSh1.a. Exhibit the above traits in their own scientific activities.
SCSh1.b. Recognize that different explanations often can be given for the same evidence.
SCSh1.c. Explain that further understanding of scientific problems relies on the design and execution of new experiments which may reinforce or weaken opposing explanations.
SCSh2. Habits of Mind: Students will use standard safety practices for all classroom laboratory and field investigations. SCSh2.a. Follow correct procedures for use of scientific apparatus.
SCSh2.b. Demonstrate appropriate technique in all laboratory situations.
SCSh2.c. Follow correct protocol for identifying and reporting safety problems and violations.
SCSh3. Habits of Mind: Students will identify and investigate problems scientifically. SCSh3.b. Develop procedures for solving scientific problems.
SCSh3.c. Collect, organize and record appropriate data.
SCSh3.d. Graphically compare and analyze data points and/or summary statistics. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Motion Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Motion
SCSh3.e. Develop reasonable conclusions based on data collected.
SCSh3.f. Evaluate whether conclusions are reasonable by reviewing the process and checking against other available information.
SCSh4. Habits of Mind: Students use tools and instruments for observing, measuring, and manipulating scientific equipment and materials. SCSh4.a. Develop and use systematic procedures for recording and organizing information.
SCSh5. Habits of Mind: Students will demonstrate the computation and estimation skills necessary for analyzing data and developing reasonable scientific explanations. SCSh5.e. Solve scientific problems by substituting quantitative values, using dimensional analysis and/or simple algebraic formulas as appropriate.
SCSh6. Habits of Mind: Students will communicate scientific investigations and information clearly. SCSh6.a. Write clear, coherent laboratory reports related to scientific investigations.
SCSh7. The Nature of Science: Students analyze how scientific knowledge is developed. Students recognize that: SCSh7.b. Universal principles are discovered through observation and experimental verification.
SCSh7.c. From time to time, major shifts occur in the scientific view of how the world works. More often, however, the changes that take place in the body of scientific knowledge are small modifications of prior knowledge. Major shifts in scientific views typically occur after the observation of a new phenomenon or an insightful interpretation of existing data by an individual or research group.
SCSh7.e. Testing, revising, and occasionally rejecting new and old theories never ends.
SCSh8. The Nature of Science: Students will understand important features of the process of scientific inquiry. Students will apply the following to inquiry learning practices: SCSh8.a. Scientific investigators control the conditions of their experiments in order to produce valuable data.
SCSh8.d. The merit of a new theory is judged by how well scientific data are explained by the new theory.
SCSh8.f. Science disciplines and traditions differ from one another in what is studied, techniques used, and outcomes sought.
SCSh9. The Nature of Science: Students will enhance reading in all curriculum areas by: SCSh9.c. Building vocabulary knowledge SCSh9.c.1. Demonstrate an understanding of contextual vocabulary in various subjects.
SCSh9.c.2. Use content vocabulary in writing and speaking.
SCSh9.c.3. Explore understanding of new words found in subject area texts.
SEC1. Students will analyze how biotic and abiotic factors interact to affect the distribution of species and the diversity of life on Earth. SEC1.c. Investigate factors that lead to the species richness of an ecosystem and describe the importance of biodiversity.
SEC1.d. Relate the role of natural selection to organismal adaptations that are specific to their habitats and describe some examples of coevolution.
SEC2. Students will investigate factors influencing population density, dispersion, and demographics. SEC2.c. Describe the different life history and reproductive strategies that have evolved in organisms.
SEC3. Students will explore and analyze community interactions. SEC3.a. Compare and contrast species interactions (e.g. predation, parasitism, mutualism, commensalism, and competition) and adaptations that have evolved in response to interspecific selective pressures.
SEC3.d. Analyze species diversity as it relates to the stability of ecosystems and communities.
SEC4. Students will analyze biogeochemical cycles and the flow of energy in ecosystems. SEC4.a. Compare and contrast the carbon, water, oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles, describing their flow through biotic and abiotic pools, including human influences.
SEC4.b. Apply the first and second laws of thermodynamics and the law of conservation of matter to the flow of energy and matter in ecosystems.
SEC4.c. Predict the flow of energy in the living world by constructing food chains, webs and pyramids for various ecosystems.
SEC4.d. Explore the importance of primary productivity in ecosystems.
SEC5. Students will assess the impact of human activities on the natural world, and research how ecological theory can address current issues facing our society, locally and globally. SEC5.a. Describe the sources, environmental impacts, and mitigation measures for major primary and secondary pollutants. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game