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Physiology B.10. Organisms have a variety of mechanisms to combat disease. As a basis for understanding the human immune response: B.10.d. Students know there are important differences between bacteria and viruses with respect to their requirements for growth and replication, the body's primary defenses against bacterial and viral infections, and effective treatments of these infections.
B.10.e. Students know why an individual with a compromised immune system (for example, a person with AIDS) may be unable to fight off and survive infections by microorganisms that are usually benign.
B.9. As a result of the coordinated structures and functions of organ systems, the internal environment of the human body remains relatively stable (homeostatic) despite changes in the outside environment. As a basis for understanding this concept: B.9.a. Students know how the complementary activity of major body systems provides cells with oxygen and nutrients and removes toxic waste products such as carbon dioxide.
B.9.b. Students know how the nervous system mediates communication between different parts of the body and the body's interactions with the environment.
B.9.c. Students know how feedback loops in the nervous and endocrine systems regulate conditions in the body.
B.9.d. Students know the functions of the nervous system and the role of neurons in transmitting electrochemical impulses.
B.9.f. Students know the individual functions and sites of secretion of digestive enzymes (amylases, proteases, nucleases, lipases), stomach acid, and bile salts.
Evolution B.7. The frequency of an allele in a gene pool of a population depends on many factors and may be stable or unstable over time. As a basis for understanding this concept: B.7.a. Students know why natural selection acts on the phenotype rather than the genotype of an organism.
B.7.b. Students know why alleles that are lethal in a homozygous individual may be carried in a heterozygote and thus maintained in a gene pool.
B.7.c. Students know new mutations are constantly being generated in a gene pool.
B.7.d. Students know variation within a species increases the likelihood that at least some members of a species will survive under changed environmental conditions.
B.8. Evolution is the result of genetic changes that occur in constantly changing environments. As a basis for understanding this concept: B.8.a. Students know how natural selection determines the differential survival of groups of organisms.
B.8.b. Students know a great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some organisms survive major changes in the environment.
B.8.e. Students know how to analyze fossil evidence with regard to biological diversity, episodic speciation, and mass extinction.
B.8.g. Students know how several independent molecular clocks, calibrated against each other and combined with evidence from the fossil record, can help to estimate how long ago various groups of organisms diverged evolutionarily from one another.
Ecology B.6. Stability in an ecosystem is a balance between competing effects. As a basis for understanding this concept: B.6.a. Students know biodiversity is the sum total of different kinds of organisms and is affected by alterations of habitats.
B.6.d. Students know how water, carbon, and nitrogen cycle between abiotic resources and organic matter in the ecosystem and how oxygen cycles through photosynthesis and respiration.
B.6.f. Students know at each link in a food web some energy is stored in newly made structures but much energy is dissipated into the environment as heat. This dissipation may be represented in an energy pyramid.
B.6.g. Students know how to distinguish between the accommodation of an individual organism to its environment and the gradual adaptation of a lineage of organisms through genetic change.
Genetics B.2. Mutation and sexual reproduction lead to genetic variation in a population. As a basis for understanding this concept: B.2.a. Students know meiosis is an early step in sexual reproduction in which the pairs of chromosomes separate and segregate randomly during cell division to produce gametes containing one chromosome of each type.
B.2.b. Students know only certain cells in a multicellular organism undergo meiosis.
B.2.c. Students know how random chromosome segregation explains the probability that a particular allele will be in a gamete.
B.2.f. Students know the role of chromosomes in determining an individual's sex.
B.2.g. Students know how to predict possible combinations of alleles in a zygote from the genetic makeup of the parents.
B.3. A multicellular organism develops from a single zygote, and its phenotype depends on its genotype, which is established at fertilization. As a basis for understanding this concept: B.3.a. Students know how to predict the probable outcome of phenotypes in a genetic cross from the genotypes of the parents and mode of inheritance (autosomal or X-linked, dominant or recessive).
B.4. Genes are a set of instructions encoded in the DNA sequence of each organism that specify the sequence of amino acids in proteins characteristic of that organism. As a basis for understanding this concept: B.4.a. Students know the general pathway by which ribosomes synthesize proteins, using tRNAs to translate genetic information in mRNA.
B.4.b. Students know how to apply the genetic coding rules to predict the sequence of amino acids from a sequence of codons in RNA.
B.4.c. Students know how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may or may not affect the expression of the gene or the sequence of amino acids in an encoded protein.
B.5. The genetic composition of cells can be altered by incorporation of exogenous DNA into the cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: B.5.a. Students know the general structures and functions of DNA, RNA, and protein.
B.5.b. Students know how to apply base-pairing rules to explain precise copying of DNA during semiconservative replication and transcription of information from DNA into mRNA.
Cell Biology B.1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism's cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: B.1.a. Students know cells are enclosed within semipermeable membranes that regulate their interaction with their surroundings.
B.1.d. Students know the central dogma of molecular biology outlines the flow of information from transcription of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the nucleus to translation of proteins on ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
B.1.e. Students know the role of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins.
B.1.f. Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.
B.1.g. Students know the role of the mitochondria in making stored chemical-bond energy available to cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide.
B.1.h. Students know most macromolecules (polysaccharides, nucleic acids, proteins, lipids) in cells and organisms are synthesized from a small collection of simple precursors.
B.1.j Students know how eukaryotic cells are given shape and internal organization by a cytoskeleton or cell wall or both.
Nuclear Processes C.11. Nuclear processes are those in which an atomic nucleus changes, including radioactive decay of naturally occurring and human-made isotopes, nuclear fission, and nuclear fusion. As a basis for understanding this concept: C.11.c. Students know some naturally occurring isotopes of elements are radioactive, as are isotopes formed in nuclear reactions.
Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry C.10. The bonding characteristics of carbon allow the formation of many different organic molecules of varied sizes, shapes, and chemical properties and provide the biochemical basis of life. As a basis for understanding this concept: C.10.b. Students know the bonding characteristics of carbon that result in the formation of a large variety of structures ranging from simple hydrocarbons to complex polymers and biological molecules.
C.10.f. Students know the R-group structure of amino acids and know how they combine to form the polypeptide backbone structure of proteins.
Chemical Equilibrium C.9. Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic process at the molecular level. As a basis for understanding this concept: C.9.b. Students know equilibrium is established when forward and reverse reaction rates are equal.
C.9.c. Students know how to write and calculate an equilibrium constant expression for a reaction.
Reaction Rates C.8. Chemical reaction rates depend on factors that influence the frequency of collision of reactant molecules. As a basis for understanding this concept: C.8.a. Students know the rate of reaction is the decrease in concentration of reactants or the increase in concentration of products with time.
C.8.b. Students know how reaction rates depend on such factors as concentration, temperature, and pressure.
C.8.c. Students know the role a catalyst plays in increasing the reaction rate.
C.8.d. Students know the definition and role of activation energy in a chemical reaction.
Chemical Thermodynamics C.7. Energy is exchanged or transformed in all chemical reactions and physical changes of matter. As a basis for understanding this concept: C.7.a. Students know how to describe temperature and heat flow in terms of the motion of molecules (or atoms).
C.7.b. Students know chemical processes can either release (exothermic) or absorb (endothermic) thermal energy.
C.7.c. Students know energy is released when a material condenses or freezes and is absorbed when a material evaporates or melts.
C.7.d. Students know how to solve problems involving heat flow and temperature changes, using known values of specific heat and latent heat of phase change. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Heat
C.7.e. Students know how to apply Hess's law to calculate enthalpy change in a reaction.
C.7.f. Students know how to use the Gibbs free energy equation to determine whether a reaction would be spontaneous.
Acids and Bases C.5. Acids, bases, and salts are three classes of compounds that form ions in water solutions. As a basis for understanding this concept: C.5.a. Students know the observable properties of acids, bases, and salt solutions.
C.5.b. Students know acids are hydrogen-ion-donating and bases are hydrogen-ion-accepting substances.
C.5.c. Students know strong acids and bases fully dissociate and weak acids and bases partially dissociate.
C.5.e. Students know the Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis acid-base definitions.
Gases and Their Properties C.4. The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and molecules and explains the properties of gases. As a basis for understanding this concept: C.4.a. Students know the random motion of molecules and their collisions with a surface create the observable pressure on that surface.
C.4.c. Students know how to apply the gas laws to relations between the pressure, temperature, and volume of any amount of an ideal gas or any mixture of ideal gases.
C.4.d. Students know the values and meanings of standard temperature and pressure (STP).
C.4.g. Students know the kinetic theory of gases relates the absolute temperature of a gas to the average kinetic energy of its molecules or atoms.
C.4.h. Students know how to solve problems by using the ideal gas law in the form PV = nRT.
Conservation of Matter and Stoichiometry C.3. The conservation of atoms in chemical reactions leads to the principle of conservation of matter and the ability to calculate the mass of products and reactants. As a basis for understanding this concept: C.3.a. Students know how to describe chemical reactions by writing balanced equations.
C.3.b. Students know the quantity one mole is set by defining one mole of carbon 12 atoms to have a mass of exactly 12 grams. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game The Mole
C.3.c. Students know one mole equals 6.02 x 10^23 particles (atoms or molecules). Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game The Mole
C.3.g. Students know how to identify reactions that involve oxidation and reduction and how to balance oxidation-reduction reactions.
Chemical Bonds C.2. Biological, chemical, and physical properties of matter result from the ability of atoms to form bonds from electrostatic forces between electrons and protons and between atoms and molecules. As a basis for understanding this concept: C.2.a. Students know atoms combine to form molecules by sharing electrons to form covalent or metallic bonds or by exchanging electrons to form ionic bonds.
C.2.c. Students know salt crystals, such as NaCl, are repeating patterns of positive and negative ions held together by electrostatic attraction.
Atomic and Molecular Structure C.1. The periodic table displays the elements in increasing atomic number and shows how periodicity of the physical and chemical properties of the elements relates to atomic structure. As a basis for understanding this concept: C.1.a. Students know how to relate the position of an element in the periodic table to its atomic number and atomic mass.
C.1.e. Students know the nucleus of the atom is much smaller than the atom yet contains most of its mass.
C.1.g. Students know how to relate the position of an element in the periodic table to its quantum electron configuration and to its reactivity with other elements in the table.
Solutions C.6. Solutions are homogenous mixtures of two or more substances. As a basis for understanding this concept: C.6.a. Students know the definitions of solute and solvent.
C.6.b. Students know how to describe the dissolving process at the molecular level by using the concept of random molecular motion.
CA.CC.RST.11-12.Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Craft and Structure RST.11-12.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11–12 texts and topics.
Structure and Composition of the Atmosphere ES.8. Life has changed Earth's atmosphere, and changes in the atmosphere affect conditions for life. As a basis for understanding this concept: ES.8.a. Students know the thermal structure and chemical composition of the atmosphere.
ES.8.c. Students know the location of the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere, its role in absorbing ultraviolet radiation, and the way in which this layer varies both naturally and in response to human activities. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
Biogeochemical Cycles ES.7. Each element on Earth moves among reservoirs, which exist in the solid earth, in oceans, in the atmosphere, and within and among organisms as part of biogeochemical cycles. As a basis for understanding this concept: ES.7.a. Students know the carbon cycle of photosynthesis and respiration and the nitrogen cycle.
ES.7.c. Students know the movement of matter among reservoirs is driven by Earth's internal and external sources of energy.
ES.7.d. Students know the relative residence times and flow characteristics of carbon in and out of its different reservoirs.
Energy in the Earth System ES.4. Energy enters the Earth system primarily as solar radiation and eventually escapes as heat. As a basis for understanding this concept: ES.4.c. Students know the different atmospheric gases that absorb the Earth's thermal radiation and the mechanism and significance of the greenhouse effect. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
ES.4.d. Students know the differing greenhouse conditions on Earth, Mars, and Venus; the origins of those conditions; and the climatic consequences of each. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
ES.5. Heating of Earth's surface and atmosphere by the sun drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds and ocean currents. As a basis for understanding this concept: ES.5.d. Students know properties of ocean water, such as temperature and salinity, can be used to explain the layered structure of the oceans, the generation of horizontal and vertical ocean currents, and the geographic distribution of marine organisms. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
ES.5.e. Students know rain forests and deserts on Earth are distributed in bands at specific latitudes. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
ES.5.f. Students know the interaction of wind patterns, ocean currents, and mountain ranges results in the global pattern of latitudinal bands of rain forests and deserts. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
ES.5.g. Students know features of the ENSO (El Nino southern oscillation) cycle in terms of sea-surface and air temperature variations across the Pacific and some climatic results of this cycle. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
ES.6. Climate is the long-term average of a region's weather and depends on many factors. As a basis for understanding this concept: ES.6.a. Students know weather (in the short run) and climate (in the long run) involve the transfer of energy into and out of the atmosphere. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
ES.6.b. Students know the effects on climate of latitude, elevation, topography, and proximity to large bodies of water and cold or warm ocean currents. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
Dynamic Earth Processes ES.3. Plate tectonics operating over geologic time has changed the patterns of land, sea, and mountains on Earth's surface. As the basis for understanding this concept: ES.3.a. Students know features of the ocean floor (magnetic patterns, age, and sea-floor topography) provide evidence of plate tectonics.
ES.3.b. Students know the principal structures that form at the three different kinds of plate boundaries.
ES.3.c. Students know how to explain the properties of rocks based on the physical and chemical conditions in which they formed, including plate tectonic processes.
ES.3.d. Students know why and how earthquakes occur and the scales used to measure their intensity and magnitude.
ES.3.e. Students know there are two kinds of volcanoes: one kind with violent eruptions producing steep slopes and the other kind with voluminous lava flows producing gentle slopes.
ES.3.f. Students know the explanation for the location and properties of volcanoes that are due to hot spots and the explanation for those that are due to subduction.
Earth's Place in the Universe ES.1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system's structure, scale, and change over time. As a basis for understanding this concept: ES.1.a. Students know how the differences and similarities among the sun, the terrestrial planets, and the gas planets may have been established during the formation of the solar system.
ES.1.b. Students know the evidence from Earth and moon rocks indicates that the solar system was formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas approximately 4.6 billion years ago.
ES.1.e. Students know the Sun is a typical star and is powered by nuclear reactions, primarily the fusion of hydrogen to form helium.
ES.2. Earth-based and space-based astronomy reveal the structure, scale, and changes in stars, galaxies, and the universe over time. As a basis for understanding this concept: ES.2.b. Students know galaxies are made of billions of stars and comprise most of the visible mass of the universe.
ES.2.d. Students know that stars differ in their life cycles and that visual, radio, and X-ray telescopes may be used to collect data that reveal those differences.
ES.2.f. Students know the evidence indicating that the color, brightness, and evolution of a star are determined by a balance between gravitational collapse and nuclear fusion.
ES.2.g. Students know how the red-shift from distant galaxies and the cosmic background radiation provide evidence for the 'big bang' model that suggests that the universe has been expanding for 10 to 20 billion years.
California Geology ES.9. The geology of California underlies the state's wealth of natural resources as well as its natural hazards. As a basis for understanding this concept: ES.9.c. Students know the importance of water to society, the origins of California's fresh water, and the relationship between supply and need.
CA.IE.Investigation and Experimentation
Investigation and Experimentation
IE.1. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other four strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will: IE.1.a. Select and use appropriate tools and technology (such as computer-linked probes, spreadsheets, and graphing calculators) to perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and display data.
IE.1.h. Read and interpret topographic and geologic maps.
IE.1.i. Analyze the locations, sequences, or time intervals that are characteristic of natural phenomena (e.g., relative ages of rocks, locations of planets over time, and succession of species in an ecosystem).
Electric and Magnetic Phenomena P.5. Electric and magnetic phenomena are related and have many practical applications. As a basis for understanding this concept: P.5.a. Students know how to predict the voltage or current in simple direct current (DC) electric circuits constructed from batteries, wires, resistors, and capacitors.
P.5.b. Students know how to solve problems involving Ohm's law.
P.5.d. Students know the properties of transistors and the role of transistors in electric circuits.
P.5.f. Students know magnetic materials and electric currents (moving electric charges) are sources of magnetic fields and are subject to forces arising from the magnetic fields of other sources.
P.5.j. Students know electric and magnetic fields contain energy and act as vector force fields.
P.5.m. Students know static electric fields have as their source some arrangement of electric charges.
P.5.o. Students know how to apply the concepts of electrical and gravitational potential energy to solve problems involving conservation of energy.
Waves P.4. Waves have characteristic properties that do not depend on the type of wave. As a basis for understanding this concept: P.4.a. Students know waves carry energy from one place to another.
P.4.b. Students know how to identify transverse and longitudinal waves in mechanical media, such as springs and ropes, and on the earth (seismic waves).
P.4.c. Students know how to solve problems involving wavelength, frequency, and wave speed.
P.4.e. Students know radio waves, light, and X-rays are different wavelength bands in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves whose speed in a vacuum is approximately 3 x 108m/s (186,000 miles/second). Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Light
P.4.f. Students know how to identify the characteristic properties of waves: interference (beats), diffraction, refraction, Doppler effect, and polarization. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Sound
Heat and Thermodynamics P.3. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, although in many processes energy is transferred to the environment as heat. As a basis for understanding this concept: P.3.a. Students know heat flow and work are two forms of energy transfer between systems.
P.3.c. Students know the internal energy of an object includes the energy of random motion of the object's atoms and molecules, often referred to as thermal energy. The greater the temperature of the object, the greater the energy of motion of the atoms and molecules that make up the object.
P.3.d. Students know that most processes tend to decrease the order of a system over time and that energy levels are eventually distributed uniformly.
P.3.e. Students know that entropy is a quantity that measures the order or disorder of a system and that this quantity is larger for a more disordered system.
P.3.f. Students know the statement 'Entropy tends to increase' is a law of statistical probability that governs all closed systems (second law of thermodynamics).
P.3.g. Students know how to solve problems involving heat flow, work, and efficiency in a heat engine and know that all real engines lose some heat to their surroundings.
Conservation of Energy and Momentum P.2. The laws of conservation of energy and momentum provide a way to predict and describe the movement of objects. As a basis for understanding this concept: P.2.a. Students know how to calculate kinetic energy by using the formula: energy equals one half mass times velocity squared. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Heat
P.2.d. Students know how to calculate momentum as the product mv.
P.2.g. Students know how to solve problems involving elastic and inelastic collisions in one dimension by using the principles of conservation of momentum and energy.
Motion and Forces P.1. Newton's laws predict the motion of most objects. As a basis for understanding this concept: P.1.a. Students know how to solve problems that involve constant speed and average speed.
P.1.b. Students know that when forces are balanced, no acceleration occurs; thus an object continues to move at a constant speed or stays at rest (Newton's first law).
P.1.f. Students know applying a force to an object perpendicular to the direction of its motion causes the object to change direction but not speed (e.g., Earth's gravitational force causes a satellite in a circular orbit to change direction but not speed).
P.1.g. Students know circular motion requires the application of a constant force directed toward the center of the circle.
P.1.h. Students know Newton's laws are not exact but provide very good approximations unless an object is moving close to the speed of light or is small enough that quantum effects are important.
P.1.k. Students know how to solve two-dimensional problems involving balanced forces (statics).
P.1.l. Students know how to solve problems in circular motion by using the formula for centripetal acceleration in the following form: acceleration equals velocity squared divided by radius.