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CA.AP.PS.Advanced Placement Probability and Statistics Standards
Advanced Placement Probability and Statistics Standards
PS.1.0. Students solve probability problems with finite sample spaces by using the rules for addition, multiplication, and complementation for probability distributions and understand the simplifications that arise with independent events.
PS.12.0. Students find the line of best fit to a given distribution of data by using least squares regression.
PS.15.0. Students are familiar with the notions of a statistic of a distribution of values, of the sampling distribution of a statistic, and of the variability of a statistic.
PS.3.0. Students demonstrate an understanding of the notion of discrete random variables by using this concept to solve for the probabilities of outcomes, such as the probability of the occurrence of five or fewer heads in 14 coin tosses.
PS.5.0. Students know the definition of the mean of a discrete random variable and can determine the mean for a particular discrete random variable.
PS.6.0. Students know the definition of the variance of a discrete random variable and can determine the variance for a particular discrete random variable.
A-APR. Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Expressions Perform arithmetic operations on polynomials. A-APR.1. Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials.
A-CED. Creating Equations Create equations that describe numbers or relationships. A-CED.1. Create equations and inequalities in one variable including ones with absolute value and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions. CA
A-CED.2. Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales.
A-CED.3. Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or nonviable options in a modeling context. For example, represent inequalities describing nutritional and cost constraints on combinations of different foods.
A-CED.4. Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. For example, rearrange Ohm’s law V = IR to highlight resistance R.
A-REI. Reasoning with Equations and Inequalities Represent and solve equations and inequalities graphically. A-REI.11. Explain why the x-coordinates of the points where the graphs of the equations y = f(x) and y = g(x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions approximately, e.g., using technology to graph the functions, make tables of values, or find successive approximations. Include cases where f(x) and/or g(x) are linear, polynomial, rational, absolute value, exponential, and logarithmic functions.
A-REI.12. Graph the solutions to a linear inequality in two variables as a half-plane (excluding the boundary in the case of a strict inequality), and graph the solution set to a system of linear inequalities in two variables as the intersection of the corresponding half-planes.
Solve systems of equations. A-REI.5. Prove that, given a system of two equations in two variables, replacing one equation by the sum of that equation and a multiple of the other produces a system with the same solutions.
A-REI.6. Solve systems of linear equations exactly and approximately (e.g., with graphs), focusing on pairs of linear equations in two variables.
Solve equations and inequalities in one variable. A-REI.3. Solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable, including equations with coefficients represented by letters.
Understand solving equations as a process of reasoning and explain the reasoning. A-REI.1. Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following from the equality of numbers asserted at the previous step, starting from the assumption that the original equation has a solution. Construct a viable argument to justify a solution method.
A-SSE. Seeing Structure in Expressions Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems. A-SSE.3. Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression. A-SSE.3.c. Use the properties of exponents to transform expressions for exponential functions. For example the expression 1.15^t can be rewritten as (1.15^(1/12))^12t ≈ 1.012^(12t) to reveal the approximate equivalent monthly interest rate if the annual rate is 15%. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Functions
F-BF. Building Functions Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities. F-BF.1. Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities. F-BF.1.a. Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context.
F-IF. Interpreting Functions Analyze functions using different representations. F-IF.7. Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases. F-IF.7.a. Graph linear and quadratic functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima.
F-IF.8. Write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function. F-IF.8.b. Use the properties of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions. For example, identify percent rate of change in functions such as y = (1.02)^t, y = (0.97)^t, y = (1.01)^(12t), y = (1.2)^(t/10), and classify them as representing exponential growth or decay. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Functions
Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context. F-IF.4. For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity.
F-IF.6. Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph.
Understand the concept of a function and use function notation. F-IF.1. Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x). Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Functions
F-IF.3. Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. For example, the Fibonacci sequence is defined recursively by f(0) = f(1) = 1, f(n+1) = f(n) + f(n-1) for n ≥ 1. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Sequences
F-LE. Linear, Quadratic, and Exponential Models Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models and solve problems. F-LE.1. Distinguish between situations that can be modeled with linear functions and with exponential functions. F-LE.1.a. Prove that linear functions grow by equal differences over equal intervals, and that exponential functions grow by equal factors over equal intervals. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Functions
G-CO. Congruence Prove geometric theorems. G-CO.9. Prove theorems about lines and angles. Theorems include: vertical angles are congruent; when a transversal crosses parallel lines, alternate interior angles are congruent and corresponding angles are congruent; points on a perpendicular bisector of a line segment are exactly those equidistant from the segment’s endpoints.
Understand congruence in terms of rigid motions. G-CO.6. Use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent.
Experiment with transformations in the plane. G-CO.1. Know precise definitions of angle, circle, perpendicular line, parallel line, and line segment, based on the undefined notions of point, line, distance along a line, and distance around a circular arc.
G-CO.2. Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch).
G-CO.3. Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself.
G-CO.4. Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments.
G-CO.5. Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another.
G-GMD. Geometric Measurement and Dimension Explain volume formulas and use them to solve problems. G-GMD.3. Use volume formulas for cylinders, pyramids, cones, and spheres to solve problems.
G-GPE. Expressing Geometric Properties with Equations Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically. G-GPE.5. Prove the slope criteria for parallel and perpendicular lines and use them to solve geometric problems (e.g., find the equation of a line parallel or perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point).
G-GPE.7. Use coordinates to compute perimeters of polygons and areas of triangles and rectangles, e.g., using the distance formula.
G-SRT. Similarity, Right Triangles, and Trigonometry Prove theorems involving similarity. G-SRT.5. Use congruence and similarity criteria for triangles to solve problems and to prove relationships in geometric figures.
Understand similarity in terms of similarity transformations. G-SRT.1. Verify experimentally the properties of dilations given by a center and a scale factor: G-SRT.1.a. A dilation takes a line not passing through the center of the dilation to a parallel line, and leaves a line passing through the center unchanged.
G-SRT.1.b. The dilation of a line segment is longer or shorter in the ratio given by the scale factor.
G-SRT.2. Given two figures, use the definition of similarity in terms of similarity transformations to decide if they are similar; explain using similarity transformations the meaning of similarity for triangles as the equality of all corresponding pairs of angles and the proportionality of all corresponding pairs of sides.
MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
CA.CC.N.Number and Quantity
N-RN. The Real Number System Use properties of rational and irrational numbers. N-RN.3. Explain why the sum or product of two rational numbers is rational; that the sum of a rational number and an irrational number is irrational; and that the product of a nonzero rational number and an irrational number is irrational.
Extend the properties of exponents to rational exponents. N-RN.2. Rewrite expressions involving radicals and rational exponents using the properties of exponents.
CA.CC.S.Statistics and Probability
Statistics and Probability
S-CP. Conditional Probability and the Rules of Probability Understand independence and conditional probability and use them to interpret data. S-CP.2. Understand that two events A and B are independent if the probability of A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, and use this characterization to determine if they are independent.
S-ID. Interpreting Categorical and Quantitative Data Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables. S-ID.5. Summarize categorical data for two categories in two-way frequency tables. Interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data (including joint, marginal, and conditional relative frequencies). Recognize possible associations and trends in the data.
S-ID.6. Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related. S-ID.6.b. Informally assess the fit of a function by plotting and analyzing residuals.
S-ID.6.c. Fit a linear function for a scatter plot that suggests a linear association.