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Rocks, Soil and water

Science, Grade 2

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Study Guide Rocks, Soil and water Science, Grade 2

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ROCKS, SOIL AND WATER What are Rocks? Rocks are solid objects found in nature. Rocks are made up of minerals. Minerals are used by people every day. For example, a mineral called lead is used to make your pencil. Rocks are nonliving things. They are NOT alive. Rocks come in different shapes and sizes. When you go to the beach, that sand you walk on is made up of tiny pieces of broken rock. Let’s check what we have learned so far: What are rocks? What is Soil? Soil is the loose material the covers much of the Earth. Soil is also nonliving. There are different layers of soil on the Earth. Soil can be made of clay, sand, and humus. What is humus? Humus is made up of different things that were once alive. Let’s check what we have learned so far: What is humus? © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
How Does Earth Change? The Earth goes through many changes each day, week, month, and year! Many things happen on Earth that cause changes some changes you can see easily, other changes are small that you might not notice right away. Weathering and Erosion Weathering is when rocks break apart from wind, water, or ice. When this happens, the rocks change. Weathering can change the size and shape of rocks. Erosion also causes the Earth to change. Erosion is when pieces of rocks and soil move because of the wind and water. When waves crash on the beach, the waves can wash away some of the sand which takes away some of the beach area. This is an example of erosion. Let’s check what we have learned so far: What is weathering? © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
Volcanoes Volcanoes cause changes on Earth too. A volcano is an opening in the Earth’s crust where hot, melted rock can quickly shoot out. This hot, melted rock comes from inside the Earth. The hot, melted rock is called lava when it comes out ABOVE the Earth’s surface. Earthquakes Earthquakes cause changes on Earth too. The bigger the earthquake, the more changes it makes. An earthquake is when the Earth’s crust moves suddenly which causes the ground to shake and vibrate very hard. The shaking and vibration can cause a lot of damage to the Earth’s surface and to the buildings on the Earth too. Let’s check what we have learned so far: What is a volcano? © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
Bodies of Water on Earth A lake is large body of water that has land all around it. A river is water that flows (this means that the water is always moving) naturally in one direction. A river is larger than a brook or a creek. An ocean is a very large body of water that is made up of saltwater. Oceans cover about ¾ of the Earth’s surface. That is a lot of ocean water! Let’s check what we have learned so far: What is a river? © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
The Water Cycle All living things need WATER to survive and to grow. The movement and recycling of the Earth’s water is called the water cycle. The water cycle is when water moves from the Earth to the air and back to the Earth again. © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
The Water Cycle Has Several Stages: Evaporation is when water (like the water in the ocean) changes from liquid into a gas water vapor. o Evaporation happens when the sun warms a body of water (like an ocean or lake) and the heat changes some of the water into water vapor, which rises off the water and goes into the air. Condensation is when the water vapor in the air cools and changes back into a liquid. Precipitation is how the condensed water gets back to the earth! Rain, hail, sleet, and snow are all forms of precipitation. Water run-off is the water that falls back to earth as precipitation, and runs off of hills and mountains into lakes, rivers, and oceans. Some water ends up on land and soaks into the ground. This water is called groundwater. Let’s check what we have learned so far: What is precipitation? © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. Permission is granted for the purchaser to print copies for non-commercial educational purposes only. Visit us at www.NewPathLearning.com.
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