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How Genes Work

Life Science - Middle School

 
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G A A G U C U U C C G A G G G U U U U A A A A A C C C G U A C G A C protein chain ribosome mRNA codon DNA Structure Chromosomes are made up of DNA. DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. The hereditary information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T). The order, or sequence, of these bases, determines the information available for building and maintaining an organism; similar to the way in which letters of the alphabet appear in a certain order to form words and sentences. DNA bases pair up with each other, A with T and C with G, to form units called base pairs. Each chromosome contains thousands of genes. A gene is a section of a DNA strand that is made up of a series of bases which contains the information for cells to make one specific protein. Proteins in cells act as messengers and help to determine the traits of an organism such as the different shapes, sizes, colors and other features found in living organisms. Copying DNA The amount of DNA doubles during the beginning of mitosis. The double stranded DNA unzips and each strand becomes a template on which a new strand is formed. Complementary bases pair-up with the exposed bases on the template strand. Every amino acid is coded by a sequence of three bases called a codon. A copy of the DNA (mRNA) is transferred from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Translation mRNA runs through the ribosome three bases at a time; tRNA brings amino acids to the ribosome. Each amino acid is attached to the growing protein chain in proper order. DNA nucleolus nucleus DNA RNA Protein Transcription Translation C G A amino acid amino acid anticodon tRNA mRNA DNA Transcription DNA is copied to a single strand of RNA called messenger RNA (mRNA). enzyme sugar gene base nucleotide new strands enzyme old strands (templates) hydrogen bonds phosphate group chromosomes centromere Making a Protein C G A T How Genes Work T T T T T T T T T T T T T T A A A A A A A A G G G G G G G G G G G G C C C C C C C C www.newpathlearning.com © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4636
G A A G U C U U C C G A G G G U U U U A A A A A C C C G U A C G A C protein chain ribosome mRNA codon \|xiBAHBDy01751mzV DNA Structure Chromosomes are made up of _____________ . DNA, or __________________________ _______________ , is the __________________ material in humans and almost all other organisms. The hereditary information in DNA is stored as a ______________ made up of _____________ chemical bases: __________________ (A), _________________ (G), ________________ (C) and __________________ (T). DNA bases pair up with each other, ____ with ____ and ____ with ____ , to form units called _______________ _______________ . Each __________________ contains thousands of genes. A __________________ is a section of a DNA strand that is made up of a series of bases which contains the information for cells to make one specific protein. __________________ in cells act as __________________ and help to determine the _________________ of an organism. Copying DNA The amount of DNA doubles during the beginning of ________________ . The double stranded DNA ________________ and each strand becomes a ________________ on which a new strand is formed. ___________________ ________________ pair-up with the exposed bases on the ________________ strand. Every _____________ _____________ is coded by a sequence of _____________ _____________ called a _____________ . A copy of the ___________ ( __________ ) is transferred from the nucleus to the _______________________. Translation mRNA runs through the _______________ three bases at a time; _________ brings ______________ ______________ to the ______________ . Each amino acid is attached to the growing ______________ ______________ in proper order. DNA nucleus DNA RNA Protein Transcription Translation C G A amino acid anticodon tRNA enzyme Making a Protein C G A T How Genes Work T T T T T T T T T T T T T T A A A A A A A A G G G G G G G G G G G G C C C C C C C C www.newpathlearning.com © Copyright NewPath Learning. All Rights Reserved. 94-4636 Transcription DNA is copied to a single strand of RNA called ___________________ _________ (mRNA). enzyme Key Vocabulary Terms amino acid anticodon base pairs chromosome codon complementary base pairs cytoplasm DNA template mRNA nucleolus nucleus protein transcription translation tRNA
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